Saturday, January 1, 2000


The sections on this page will be given their own pages as time and content warrants.

If this be in pursuit of the Realm of the Flat Earth, or for the Horizon of Apollo...
- The "Horizon of Apollo" describes the proof evident in official media of the NASA space program which show that the event of landing people on the Moon was fabricated, a conclusion yielded despite being in opposition to the consensually accepted narrative. This Horizon is an exemplary standard.
- The "Realm of the Flat Earth" [] describes being within a trap of viewing all evidence solely in relation with ones' belief, at the discourtesy of denying all proof to the contrary, even if the Realm is informed by actual mysteries such as false Earth horizon photographs.

Resources for data:
* Medieval manuscripts blog []
* The Chequered Board blog (University of Notre Dame) []
* "Rome in the Footsteps of an XVIIIth Century Traveller" website []

Lexicon of a New Chronology -
- Aeon: A period of time composed of decades and/or centuries
- CAN: Consensually Accepted Narrative

Recommended music for study: Melismatic from Saudade by Steve Cobby []


Pages to post:
- Giants
- Drakons
- India before 1700s
- Atlantis source materials
- Atlantis in Mexico
- Atlantis in Bolivia
- Pre-1000 BM northern Americas
- Pre-1000 BM middle Americas (Meso-America and Central America)
- Pre-1000 BM southern Americas

"UFOs" and Ancient Flying Machines? Reports of flying machines.


The conservative approach to documenting history is based on nationalism, or, adherence to the value of not changing what has been established.
* "New British Migrant Exam Course Slammed for Rewriting History; A new education course on migration in the UK over the centuries has been heavily criticized by academics for its claim that there were Africans in Britain before the English inhabited the islands" (2016-01-11, []


c.1040 years BM, the Heinsohn Horizon
1000 years BM, the Federated Imperial Realm (Roman Empire) is instituted
640 years BM, the disaster of the Black Death.
The "Slavic invasion", alongside the "Celts", are they not an interrelated people from East to West? Were one to read the new Chronology correctly, one finds the original division between the Roman German of the West and the "Slavic" of the east... in Bohemia and Moravia [] []

Map of Europe as a queen, printed by Sebastian Munster in Basel in 1570.
Bohemia is the Heart of Europe


"Romanesque" styles in paintings created during the 1400s. There were no archaeologists describing to artists what the people wore 1400 years before. The paintings use then current examples of dress, influencing modern perception of ancient Rome. Some examples:
* "School of Athens" (1509 by Raphael) [], full image []
* "Slaughter of the Innocents" (c.1450 AD by Matteo di Giovanni) [], preserved at the Santa maria della Scala museum in Siena
* "Cena in Emmaus" (1525, by Jacopo da Pontormo) []
* "The Wedding at Cana" [] full image []
* "Perseus Freeing Andromeda" (1510) [], full image []
* Compare the following [] to an illumination for "Mystère de la Vengeance de Nostre Seigneur Iesu Crist" [], the illustration by artist Loyset Liédet [], whose "work is a valuable record of contemporary fashion and textiles, of secular life and of the emerging interest in scenes of internal space combined with external city and landscapes", as described at [].

Views of the people according to renaissance artists -
* Veneto Bartolomeo
* Hans Memling []: []
* []
* "Crucifixion" (1537, by Peter Gertner; held at Walters Art Museum, Baltimore) []
* "Le collecteur d'impôts", c.1550s by Jan Matsys (Massys) [], large image []

* "Nuremberg chronicles (1493) - Organizational Structure of the Empire of the Holy Roman Empire" ( []

* "Charles V enthroned over his defeated enemies" / "Allegorie du regne de Charles Quint" by Giulio Clovio, c.1530, published in "Les Guerres d'Italie" book by Jean-Louis Fournel, p.97
Charles V enthroned over his defeated enemies (from left to right): Suleiman, Pope Clement VII, Francis I, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse.
- Original version [] (shown below)
- Wood-cut version [], hand-painted version [], with revised figures

The political context for the painting is provided at [], describing the "Ottoman-France Alliance" rivaling the Roman Empire for world supremacy.
* "The Triumph of Charles V over the Rulers of Europe" ( [] [begin excerpt]: In the painting, Charles is triumphantly enthroned on a seat of gold and marble which bears the motto Plus Ultra (also the national motto of Spain), and bears the sword (representative of worldly power) and the golden orb (representing his religious legitimacy and universal dominion). He also sits atop an eagle, representing victory as well as the symbol of the Roman Empire (or, in this case, the Holy Roman Empire). Various Christian princes, as well as the Pope and the Ottoman sultan, are depicted as being tied to him (as if they were captives) while staring up at the Emperor in awe. It is notable that all of these monarchs are shown in their full pompous attire and bearing the heraldry of their kingdoms (the exception is the German prince whose arms lie on the ground, signifying his complete and utter powerlessness in the face of Charles’ might). This is intended to emphasize their greatness in order to underscore the supreme status of Charles as Emperor (the King of Kings) for having triumphed over them.
These paintings are merely a small part of the broader intellectual and artistic endeavors undertaken during the reign of Charles (and during that of his son, Philip II) to buttress the legitimacy of the Emperor as a universal sovereign. Interestingly enough, a similar campaign of artistic, architectural and textual legitimation was also undertaken on a massive scale by Charles’ contemporary and rival, the Ottoman Sultan Suleyman I. The following is a particularly interesting painting of the latter, drawn by the sixteenth-century artist Veneziano Agostino in 1532: [] [end excerpt]
* 1520s "From Pavia to the Sack of Rome – siege coins in Italy" ( []

* 1588 "The Seven Churches", chapter 1 to "The Marvellous Things of Faith of the City of Rome (Le Cose Maravigliose dell' Alma Citta' di Roma)" []

* "8 of the Oldest Images of the Blessed Virgin Mary" (2015-03-13, []

Strasbourg French-German Almanac for 1810 []

More about the Imperial Realm (Rome)
* "Holy Roman Empire: A State of States" (by Preston Martin) []
* "Partition of the Carolingian Empire with the Treaty of Verdun on 843 AD" map []
* "Holy Roman Empire, 1250 AD" map []

* Quaterionenadler_David_de_Negker []

* 1206: "King John’s Concession of England to the Pope" ( [] [begin excerpt]: Under this agreement John surrendered the sovereignty of England and Ireland to the papacy (do offer and freely concede to ... our lord pope Innocent and to his Catholic successors, the whole kingdom of England and the whole kingdom Ireland, with all their rights and appurtenances) and promptly received them back from the pope (now receiving and holding them, as it were a vassal, from God and the Roman church) and agreed to pay seven hundred marks every year for England, and another three hundred marks in respect of Ireland.
This stratagem by which John conceded his kingdom to the pope was essentially a diplomatic manoeuvre by which he became reconciled to the church and brought the support of Innocent III. "Henceforth Innocent III abetted the king unswervingly, even in his most arbitrary conduct." [end excerpt]

* "The Paris Peace Treaty of September 30, 1783" (via [] [begin excerpt]: [...] Prince George the Third, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, arch-treasurer and prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc., and of the United States of America [...] [end excerpt]
More about this [].
* "US Constitution Gave Legal Ownership and Control of the United States to London" ( []

* "The Holy Roman Empire’s Imperial Diet: Electoral Votes in 1792" ( []

* "Martyrdom of St Hippolyte", central panel in "Triptych of the Martyrdom of St. Hippolytus" (c.1465 to 1475, Dieric Bouts) []

* "The Conjurer" (retrieved 2016-12-24, [], The Conjurer is by Dutch painter Hieronymus Bosch or his workshop, executed around 1502, full painting []


What is regarded as "Egyptian culture" continues to exist through "ancient Roman" times.
An underwater "Egyptian culture" city is inundated c.1200 years BM, whose statues and temples remained intact until the disaster, hundreds of years after the CAN describes the culture as having been erased by "Christian and Muslim zealotry". Another site within Anatolia exhibiting "Egyptian Culture" is accepted as having been abandoned up to 900 years BM.

900 to 801 years BM, Pergamum in Anatolia (Turkey), also known as the Red Hall or Red Basilica built for the worship of the Egyptian gods Osiris and Isis, the largest temple in Pergamum. []

* "Lost Egyptian City found after 1,200 years" []
* "Sunken Cities: the man who found Atlantis" (2016-04-29, [] [begin excerpt]: Supported by a team of 40, including Egyptologists, engineers and expert divers, Goddio began scouring the seabed. Before long he had spotted the broken shafts of centuries-old red granite columns, protruding from the sediment. Goddio recognised these columns as proof of a significant settlement from antiquity. But he could not immediately be certain that it was Canopus, the specific city he had been hoping to find.
So, the following year, he started excavating another nearby spot. “And then: voila!” Goddio, 69, recalls. “We found the foundation of a very big wall, three metres thick, made of limestone blocks. It was fantastic.”
Further excavation showed that the wall ran for more than 330 ft, suggesting that it had belonged to the largest temple found in the region so far. The monumental scale of the sanctuary persuaded Goddio that he had discovered the Serapeum of Canopus, a temple dedicated to the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis renowned in antiquity for its power to heal sick people who slept within its precinct. In addition, the ruins tallied with the discovery by Goddio’s team in the summer of 1999, of a colossal marble head, found not far from the sanctuary’s wall. The head was broken at the base of the neck, but its size suggested that it had once topped a giant statue, up to 15ft in height. After the encrustation of seashells and silt was removed from its surface, Goddio was confronted by a vigorous male face, its still powerful features framed by luxuriant hair and a bushy beard. He was eye to eye with the face of Serapis. [...]
Since the late Eighties, Goddio has worked around the world: he has excavated 13 shipwrecks in the Philippines alone. For the past two decades, though, he has focused on an underwater area, equivalent in size to Paris, which lies 20 miles north-east of Alexandria.
It was here that he rediscovered not only Canopus but also another lost city called Thonis-Heracleion, four miles off the coast. Canopus and Thonis-Heracleion were both built on unstable wetlands and, probably during the eighth century AD, sank into the sea.
Before their destruction, though, the cities of the Canopic coast were among the most dynamic settlements on the Mediterranean.
“Thonis-Heracleion was huge,” Goddio explains. “It was the port of entry to Egypt, so all trade had to go through the city. Furthermore, it possessed a temple where every pharaoh had to go in order to receive the title of their power, as universal sovereign, from the supreme god Amun. So it was very wealthy.” [...]
Then they carefully clean the artefacts using spatulas.
Poor visibility means that it can take days to understand the contours of individual objects, such as the colossal red-granite statue of the god Hapy, the personification of the annual inundation of the Nile, upon which the prosperity of ancient Egypt depended. This statue, which is almost 18ft tall and weighs approximately six tons, was discovered in Thonis-Heracleion. [...]
Colossal statues aren’t the only artefacts that Goddio has found in Aboukir Bay. Among his more intriguing finds are several lead model boats, of various lengths, which he discovered in Thonis-Heracleion. These curious objects were probably associated with the secret annual rituals known as the Mysteries of Osiris. “Nothing like them has ever been discovered before,” Goddio says. [...]
Goddio is particularly proud of having found, in Thonis-Heracleion, an inscribed slab, or stele, from 380 BC, bearing a decree issued by the pharaoh Nectanebo I which, he says, helped “solve a 2,000-year-old mystery”.
For millennia, people believed that Thonis and Heracleion were different towns. But the stele revealed that, in fact, “Thonis” was the older, Egyptian name for the city that the Greeks called Heracleion (in honour of the half-god Herakles).
This is significant, because it suggests that parts of ancient Egypt – which used to be considered an isolated, inward-looking state – were more cosmopolitan than was previously thought.
During the Ptolemaic Kingdom, which lasted from 305 BC until the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC, Egypt became an ever more complex society. Living on the mouth of the Nile, the inhabitants of Canopus and Thonis-Heracleion came into contact with people from other parts of the Mediterranean, including Phoenicians, Cypriots, and Greeks. As a result, they began to combine Egyptian traditions with foreign customs and approaches. [end excerpt]
- photo caption: The head of the god Serapis

- photo caption: A statue of the ancient Egyptian queen Arsinoe II

* "Egypt's Atlantis: Amazing artifacts from ancient underwater world go on display" (2016-05-07, [] [begin excerpt]: Objects from two lost underwater cities recently discovered off the Egyptian coast are being revealed to the public in a “blockbuster” British Museum exhibition.
French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio first discovered Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus, submerged at the mouth of the River Nile, in 2000 - over 1,000 years after they were swallowed by the Mediterranean and covered in sand.
The exhibition will feature more than 200 spectacularly preserved finds from the ancient cities, including a 5.4 meter-high (17.7 ft) granite statue of the Nile flood God, Hapy, and a 1,200-year-old statue of the Greek Goddess, Isis.
Goddio, president of the European Institute for Underwater Archaeology (which he founded in 1987), excavated over a dozen historic shipwrecks before turning his attention to uncovering Egypt’s lost world - equivalent in size to that of Paris - in 1996.
However, Goddio’s work is far from over - the 68-year-old estimates he’s uncovered only 5 percent of the sunken world so far.
“Pompeii is a very small city. They started archaeological excavation there in the 18th century – and it is still not excavated fully. Thonis-Heracleion covers an area that is three times the size of Pompeii,” Goddio told the Telegraph [].
What led to the demise of the cites is still not known, although Goddio told the Guardian they “most probably disappeared because of seismic causes”.
This is the museum's first major exhibition dedicated to underwater archaeology and promises to “transform our understanding” of the intricate relationship between Greek and Egyptian history. The exhibition will run for six months from May 19 to November 27.
Photo [] caption: Colossal statue of the god Hapy. Thonis-Heracleion, Egypt, 4th century BC. Maritime Museum, Alexandria.
photo [], caption: the Stela of Thonis-Heracleion being raised from the Bay of Abukir


* "Some ancient Egyptians were natural blondes" (2016-05-01, []

* "Buddhism in Ancient Egypt and Meroe – Beliefs Revealed Through Ancient Script" (2016-08-05, []

King John in the early 13th century sent envoys to Mohammed al-Nâsir asking for his help. In return King John offered to convert to islam and turn England into a muslim state.
The muslim jihadist Mohammed al-Nâsir's view on King John: "I never read or heard that any king possessing such a prosperous kingdom subject and obedient to him, would voluntarily ... make tributary a country that is free, by giving to a stranger that which is his own ... conquered, as it were, without a wound. I have rather read and heard from many that they would procure liberty for themselves at the expense of streams of blood, which is a praiseworthy action; but now I hear that your wretched lord, a sloth and a coward, who is even worse than nothing, wishes from a free man to become a slave, who is the most miserable of all human beings." Mohammed al-Nâsir concluded by wondering aloud why the English allowed such a man to lord over them — they must, he said, be very servile and soft.

* "Did King Offa Become a Muslim?" No. ( [], an article refuting a popular conception as presented at this link [], presents some facts concerning the adoption of the gold standard. [begin excerpt]:
The vast majority of the Arab coins found in England are silver and thought to have been brought over by the Vikings.[5] This is because silver was the currency of the Baltic lands; Arab fur traders would pay for their goods in silver, the accepted currency of the Baltics. There was no gold coinage in England before Offa, nor in Western Europe before Charlemagne.[6] It is therefore quite expected that Offa would make his first gold coinage in order to be accepted by Arabs, in the style of their own dinars. J. Allan states that Offa, desiring to have a gold coinage and `following the universal practice in such cases, copied the coinage that had suggested the idea to him as closely as possible; it would have been quite contrary to all numismatic laws for him to have instituted at once a gold coinage of the same style as his silver coins; to him the essential features of a gold coin were those of the only gold coins he knew.'[7]
[5.] J. Allan, Offa's imitation of an Arab dinar, Numismatic Chronicle 1914, pp. 77-89.
[6.] N. Lowick, A new type of solidus mancus, Numismatic Chronicle 1973, pp. 173-182.
[7.] J. Allan, op cit.

King Offa behaved in several ways that was entirely inconsistent with being a Muslim.
Firstly, he anointed his son in a Christian ceremony as his heir. He was the first English King to have done so (see Sir Frank Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1943, pp. 218-219).
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: A.D. 785 (actually, 787). "This year died Bothwin, Abbot of Ripon, and a litigious synod was holden at Chalk-hythe; Archbishop Eanbert resigned some part of his bishopric, Hibbert was appointed bishop by King Offa, and Everth was consecrated king.  In the meantime legates were sent from Rome to England by Pope Adrian, to renew the blessings of faith and peace which St. Gregory sent us by the mission of Bishop Augustine, and they were received with every mark of honour and respect."
The ceremony was (and still is) an intensely Christian religious ceremony. The Chronicle uses the term cyninge gehalgod for consecration to kingship. "Gehalgian is the word which is normally used of the consecration of bishops and churches in Anglo-Saxon texts, and is a clear indication of ecclesiastical influence in the making of kings" (Blair, Peter Hunter, Anglo-Saxon England, Folio 1997, p195)

* "British treasure hunter hits medieval pay dirt" (2009-09-25, [] [begin excerpt]: The discovery sent a thrill through Britain’s archaeological community, which said Thursday that it offers new insight into the world of the Anglo-Saxons, who ruled England from the fifth century until the 1066 Norman invasion and whose cultural influence is still felt throughout the English-speaking world.
“This is just a fantastic find completely out of the blue,” said Roger Bland, who managed the cache’s excavation. “It will make us rethink the Dark Ages.”
The trove includes intricately designed helmet crests embossed with a frieze of running animals, enamel-studded sword fittings and a checkerboard piece inlaid with garnets and gold. One gold band bore a biblical inscription in Latin calling on God to drive away the bearer’s enemies.
The Anglo-Saxons were a group of Germanic tribes who invaded England starting in the wake of the collapse of the Roman Empire. Their artisans made striking objects out of gold and enamel, and their language, Old English, is a precursor of modern English.
The cache of gold and silver pieces was discovered in what was once Mercia, one of five main Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, and is thought to date to between 675 and 725. [end excerpt]

Events that precipitated the "Black Death".
* "Fragment of Halley's Comet Hit Earth in 536 A.D., Causing Drought and Famine" []
* "The Tsunami which destroyed Ancient Olympia" []
* "The Volcano which brought Famine to Europe" []

* "Simulation indicates ancient flood volcanoes could have altered climate" (2015-08-10, []

* "1,800 years of global ocean cooling halted by global warming" (2015-08-17, []

Evidence of the deluge
The following shows how the city of Rome had areas buried by a disaster which afterwards were regarded as a "necropolis" when before it was a residential area. The deposit of dirt which buried that section of the city is given a date in regards to the amount of soil displaced atop the residential area during the disaster.
* "Excavation of Rome home shows city bigger than thought" (2015-09-05, AP Newswire) [] [begin excerpt]: Officials said Wednesday that the area on the Quirinale Hill had long been thought to have only been used as a necropolis, with ancient Rome's residential zone further south and centered around the Roman Forum.
But archaeologists excavating a palazzo on the hill said they discovered a well-preserved rectangular home, complete with wooden supports and a roof, proving that the area was also used for residential purposes.
The ANSA news agency quoted excavation chief Mirella Serlorenzi as saying the discovery "means that Rome at the start of the 6th century was much bigger than what we thought and wasn't just centered around the Forum." [end excerpt]

Views of Rome after the deluge:
* "Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, città di castello" (1498, by Signorelli) [], shows some of the ruins of old Rome

* "Arch of Titus" painting by Gaspar van Wittel []

And views from other parts of the Empire
* "Münster's sights and views-- some examples from different editions (1540 to 1628)" []

* "MEDIEVAL ROME in the footsteps of an XVIIIth century traveller" ( [], A selection of plates by Giuseppe Vasi showing medieval Rome.

* "Ruins of Lucullus’s villas" (from Latium by Kircher) []

A Capriccio of Classical Ruins by Giovanni Paolo Panin

* Copper engraving by Joan Blaeu (1593-1673). Gunnar Heinsohn writes []: 17th c. Rome’s Colosseum still surrounded by mud debris that reached heights from 8 m (Caracalla baths) up to 13 m (Large Argentina).

* Copper engraving by Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1772-1778). Gunnar Heinsohn writes []: Rome’s Forum still under debris, and some 50 years before its identification in 1837. Up to then, the mud-filled area is known as Campo Vaccino (cattle run).

* []: Engraving depicting the Aqua Claudia in Rome

Public knowledge of a deluge is based on the story of Noah
* From "Arca Noë" book (1675, by Athanasius Kircher, Holy See, Vatican; archived at the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library):
- "World after the Flood" map [],

- "Submerged mountains" diagram [],

- "Migrations after the Flood" map []

A map showing Doggerland, a region of northwest Europe home to Mesolithic people before sea level rose to inundate this area and create the Europe we are familiar with today.
Published November 30, 2012
Written by National Geographic Society

Map of the Roman Empire, 1709, by De Lisle

Noah's Ark, a chronology of depictions [], more historical depiction info [], historical info [], original word to describe the "Ark" []

* "The Lost City of Atlantis May Be Hiding in Plain Sight" (2015-08-17, []: Some say the lost city of Atlantis lies not at the bottom of the ocean but in plain sight off the coast of Italy on the island of Sardinia. Herodotus and Aristotle were two who thought Plato's description of a land beyond the strait between Sicily and Tunisia, which disappeared beneath the waves, referenced the island. Writer and journalist Sergio Frau is another. After researching the island for a decade, Frau suspects a mysterious disaster that devastated Sardinia 3,200 years ago was in fact a tidal wave, which boosts the theory that Sardinia and Atlantis are one and the same, reports the Guardian. Stefano Tinti, an expert on tidal waves who recently visited the island with Frau along with a dozen other experts, says 350 tidal waves have occurred in the Mediterranean over the last 2,500 years and one might explain why all of Sardinia's ancient megalithic edifices below 1,640 feet of elevation are hidden beneath dirt.
Frau explains at least 20,000 nuraghi—fortresses with a main tower—can be found across the island, dating between the 16th and 12th centuries BC. But below 1,640 feet in the south, the structures are buried. Excavations in this area have found a jumble of ceramics, cups, pots, oil lamps, sharpening stones, metal implements, knives, chisels, needles, and arrow tips; gold, silver, amber, and rock crystal jewellery have also been found. Tinti notes the 2003 earthquake in Algeria "triggered a shockwave that reached the Balearics and Sardinia an hour later," but only a comet hitting "very close to the coast and in a very specific direction" could have created a wall of water 1,640 feet high. The Guardian reports researchers could search for evidence of such an impact, including comet fragments, underwater. The initial purpose of the nuraghi, used later for moon worship, is also a subject of interest.
* "Was Sardinia home to Atlantis? Comet triggered an enormous tidal wave that wiped out ancient civilisation, experts claim; Writer and Atlantis expert Sergio Frau says the southern end of Sardinia in the Mediterranean resembles an underwater Pompeii; Frau believes a tidal wave caused by a comet may washed the ancient civilisation away in 1,175 BC, taking the island back to a dark age" (2015-08-17, [], photo caption: The most complex of the Island's Bronze Age structures is Su Nuraxi, at Barumini, which was discovered in 1950. The fortress, constructed from huge basalt blocks, is surrounded by a maze of circular walls (pictured) – the remnants of a later hamlet


Artifacts of the age before ancient Rome?
* "Ancient Stone Slab May Contain Religious Text From Etruscan Culture; Researchers have unearthed a massive stone slab that contains ancient text from the Etruscans, which may reveal a bit more about this ancient culture" (2016-03-29, []

* "Balkans: Archaeologists puzzle over 7,000y old copper-find - a tremendous fire destroyed a flourishing city" []

* "Biblical city of Sodom finally uncovered in Jordan Valley?" (2015-10-07, [], buried underneath a wall of mud, while other cities of the same millennial aeon are found under a minimal amount of dirt by comparison, still atop their tels (human-made hills), but exposed for the aeon, have had their brick structures torn apart for building projects of succeeding generations.

* "Josephus: the Main Manuscripts of 'Antiquities' " ( [], showing that the oldest examples of any of the twenty volumes in the set dates to the 1000s AD (up to 1000 years BM). The twenty volume set is generally regarded as being originally written during the 1st century AD (up to 2000 years BM). Acknowledgment of the fact that no copies exist that are dated to before 1000 years BM is at []: "As is common with ancient texts, however, there are no surviving extant manuscripts of Josephus' works that can be dated before the 11th century, and the oldest of these are all Greek minuscules, copied by Christian monks."

* Images from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts ( [], with examples from western Europe, spanning the 8th century (700s AD / up to 1300 years BM) to the 16th century (1500s AD / up to 500 years BM), including four examples of pages from "Antiquitates iudaicae" by Josephus, these examples from an edition published in northern France during the 1100s AD (up to 900 years BM): [] [] [] []

The oldest examples of the "Almagest" by Ptolemy is generally regarded to date to around the 1000s AD (up to 1000 years BM) [], though it is also regarded to have been originally written during the 100s AD (up to 1900 years BM).

* "Ptolemy's geography: a brief account of all the printed editions down to 1730, with notes on some important variations observed in that of Ulm 1482, including the recent discovery of the earliest printed map of the world yet known on modern geographical conceptions in which some attempt was made to depart from ancient tradition" []

Modern translations of the books of Plato are themselves based on Arabic translations created during the 700s AD (1200s BM), as written here []
* "Aflatun" (1999, Encyclopedia of Islam) []
* "Greek Sources in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy" (2013, []

* "The Oldest Surviving Manuscript of Plato's Tetralogies (November 895)" ( []
* Browse the "Twenty-four Dialogues, with marginal scholia (also known as 'The Clarke Plato')" ( []
The marginal scholia were written suitably for presentation, as shown in the following four examples:

* (University of Oxford) [] [begin excerpt]: Oxford’s most important manuscript of classical philosophy is the Clarke Plato (MS. E. D. Clarke 39), the oldest surviving manuscript for about half of Plato’s dialogues, which was acquired by the University in 1809: it was written in Constantinople in A.D. 895.
The Bodleian also holds the oldest surviving manuscript of the Discourses of Epictetus (MS. Auct. T. 4. 13), a twelfth-century text acquired in 1820.
In the early Latin West, echoes of Greek philosophy were available through encyclopaedists such as Martianus Capella, from whom the Bodleian owns two important manuscripts from ninth-century France: a copy of the text itself with gloss (MS. Laud Lat. 118), and a manuscript of the commentary by Johannes Scotus Erigena (MS. Auct. T. 2. 19). Manuscripts of Latin classical and Late Antique  philosophers remained accessible, some texts more common than others. Boethius’ De consolatione philosophiae was transcribed with its Carolingian gloss in a superb manuscript made at Canterbury in the late tenth century (MS. Auct. F. 1. 15, part 1). In the twelfth century, William of Malmesbury searched successfully for the works of Cicero; the Library has his copy of the De officiis (MS. Rawl. G. 139). Philosophical study in twelfth-century Ireland is witnessed by a manuscript which includes Calcidius’ Latin translation of Plato's Timaeus and extensive excerpts from Erigena's Periphyseon (MS. Auct. F. 3. 15).
Latin translations of Aristotle, made either directly from the Greek or via the Arabic, were becoming available from the twelfth century. A collection of early Aristotelian translations, including parts of the Metaphysics and Ethics, was at St. Albans Abbey by the thirteenth century (MS. Selden Supra 24). At the universities from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, Aristotle’s texts and the many commentaries on them provided both the content and the logical tools for philosophical study to progress. The patterns of university exercises and debate have left their mark in the many surviving manuscripts of Quaestiones, Quodlibetica and the like from Oxford and other universities. Oxford itself was producing philosophers of European stature, such as Roger Bacon, Walter Burley and William of Ockham.
In Renaissance Italy, scholars could regain access to ancient philosophical texts in the original Greek. Duke Humfrey of Gloucester was the dedicatee of new Latin translations of both Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Politics. Whilst his own copies of these texts no longer survive in Oxford, the influence of his books and of his encouragement of humanistic scholarship is perceptible, for example in a manuscript of Leonardo Bruni’s translation of Aristotle's Ethics and Politics written by an English scribe in 1452 (New College MS. 228). Manuscripts of Aristotelian translations and commentaries are listed in Lacombe, Lohr and Kristeller (see Select Bibliography). Later Bodleian accessions of Italian manuscripts include a copy of Marsilio Ficino’s commentary on Plato’s Symposium with Ficino’s own autograph corrections (MS. Canon. Class. Lat. 156), one of the many humanistic manuscripts bought in 1817 from the Canonici collection of Venice. [end excerpt]
[begin questions] []:
- In what language was "Clarke Plato" written? (Greek, Ancient Greek or any other)
- How many and which of Plato's dialogues did it comprise? ("about half of dialogues" is ridiculous when it is possible to name the exact number seeing that it is still in existence)
- Who wrote it, and from what institution?
- Was this manuscript claimed to be a copy, translation or reconstruction of Plato's dialogues?
[end questions]
[begin answer]: As to the first edition with the complete corpus, the most ancient of which we know is Thrasyllus' in the first century AD. All the medieval manuscripts (such as the Clarke) are based on this edition, but there are papyri which are independent.
As far as I know, Plato was not translated from Arabic into any other language. People in the Latin realms did not know so much of Plato and just didn't care to read him until the Renaissance when he began to be translated into Latin direct from Greek. Emmanuel Chrysolaras was probably the first to do that since ancient times. Read also about the magnificent Marsilio Ficino, who had done a complete translation of Plato by 1484.
The texts of Plato are in Attic Greek (which is ancient). So, when one is talking about a manuscript that is in the direct textual tradition of Plato's works, one is talking about a manuscript that is in ancient Greek. It is a witness to the text as Plato wrote it. So the Clarke MS. is indeed in ancient Greek.
The Clarke contains the first six tetralogies. There is a complete photographic facsimile of the Clarke MS. in Allen, T. W., Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39 Phototypice editus, 2 vols. Leiden 1898–9. So no, you don't have to go to Oxford, try instead, an interlibrary loan, or perhaps they have it at your university library. Mine has the Allen, and we are very provincial here.
The evidence is that the MS. was corrected by Arethas, Deacon at Patras, and later, Archbishop of Caesarea, but was given its first draft by one of Arethas' students, "John the Calligrapher".
Anyway, here's a huge bibliography (.pdf): []. Read everything on there and you'll be an expert! Then maybe you can write the Wikipedia section. [end answer]

* "Pre-Platonic Writings Pertinent to Atlantis" (by R. Cedric Leonard) []

* "Decoding Plato; I met with the world’s leading Atlantologist to separate fact from myth" (2015-04-03, []

* "Does New Theory Pinpoint Lost City of Atlantis? An author’s obsessive quest leads to a site off the coast of Morocco" (2015-03-18, [] [begin excerpt]:
[question] Are there any reliable maps that show Atlantis?
[answer] No, though there have been people who have tried to place it on maps. There was a sort of odd, brilliant polymath named Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit who lived in Germany in the 17th century. He did what’s probably the most famous map of Atlantis, where he placed it in the Atlantic Ocean. But there’s no way of knowing whether he based this on any reliable information or whether he just made it up. The oldest maps we have don’t go back much past 1500. They’re post Christopher Columbus. [end excerpt]

39 ingots of Orichalcum were recovered from a shipwreck found off the coast of sicily, dated to c.550BCE
* "Metal From City Of Atlantis Found Off Sicilian Coast" (2015-01-07, [] [begin excerpt]: The metal was recovered from a ship that sunk more than 2,600 years ago. The metal, orichalucum, was believed by the Ancient Greeks to have been found in only one place: the lost city of Atlantis.
Experts believe that the ingots from Atlantis were arriving to Gela in southern Sicily – possibly being delivered from Greece or Asia Minor. The ship carrying the metal was most likely caught in a storm and sunk just as it was about to enter a Sicilian port.
Sicily’s superintendent of the Sea Office, Sebastiano Tusa, spoke about the shipwreck and the discovery.
“The wreck dates to the first half of the sixth century.It was found about 1,000 feet from Gela’s coast at a depth of 10 feet. Nothing similar has ever been found. We knew orichalcum from ancient texts and a few ornamental objects.”
Orichalcum, the metal of Atlantis, has an ancient and mysterious history. For centuries, experts have hotly debated the metal’s composition and origin. According to the ancien Greeks, orichalcum was invented by Cadmus, a Greek-Phoenician mythological character. The Greek philosopher Plato mentioned orichalcum as a legendary metal when he mentioned it in the Critias dialogue. Plato described the city of Atlantis as flashing “with the red light of orichalcum.” Plato said that the metal, second only in value to gold, was mined on Atlantis used to cover all the surfaces in Poseidon’s temple.
Most experts agree today that orichalcum is a brass-like allow which was actually made by cementation. This is a process whereby zinc ore, charcoal and copper metal are combined in a crucible. When analyzed with X-ray fluorescence, the 39 ingots of Atlantis metal turned out to be an allow made with 75-80 percent copper, 14-20 percent zinc and smaller percentages of nickel, lead and iron.
Tusa commented on the importance of the discovery.
“The finding confirms that about a century after its foundation in 689 B.C., Gela grew to become a wealthy city with artisan workshops specialized in the production of prized artifacts.” [end excerpt]

Among the oldest book to describe Atlantis, aside from the 900s AD copies of Plato, is "Mundus Subterraneus (The Underground World)", by Athanasius Kircher, 1669AD [], containing the following map, more info here [], which says "The present example is from a Latin edition and includes 5 leaves (10 pages) of descriptive text, derived from Plato, but including significant details not in the modern editions of Plato's account".

* "Plato's Oldest Surviving Manuscript Dates to 895 AD" []

* "A New Fragment of Plato's Parmenides on Parchment" (by William H. Willis) (.pdf) []

* "Medieval Weapons & Armour" ( [] [begin excerpt]:
Ballistas and Springalds -
The balista seems to have died out with much other technical know-how when the Roman Empire became Christian and learning was heavily discouraged (Everything a good Christian needed to know was in the Bible).
The technology was rediscovered in the late middle ages when an exception was made for military engineering. [end excerpt]
More weapons at the page, including this interesting photo:
Chinese repeating crossbow (che-ke nu)


What remarkable affects transpired during the transition from Roman numerals to "Arabic" numerals?
* "Arabic numerals: Adoption in Europe" ( [] shows a German manuscript page teaching use of Arabic numerals (Talhoffer Thott, 1459). At this time, knowledge of the numerals was still widely seen as esoteric, and Talhoffer presents them with the Hebrew alphabet and astrology.

Jewish relations in the Roman Empire:

* "Evidence proves Ashkenazi Jews descended predominately from four villages in Northeastern Turkey" (2016-04-21, []
* "DNA sat nav uncovers ancient Ashkenaz, predicts where Yiddish originated" (2016-04-19, University of Sheffield) [] [begin excerpt]: The research, led by Dr Eran Elhaik from the University of Sheffield, suggests the Yiddish language was invented by Iranian and Ashkenazic Jews as they traded on the Silk Road.
The ancient villages, identified by the GPS tool, are clustered close to the crossroads of the Silk Roads and are named Iskenaz, Eskenaz, Ashanaz, and Ashkuz -- names which may derive from the word "Ashkenaz."
"Language, geography and genetics are all connected," said Dr Eran Elhaik from the University's Department of Animal and Plant Sciences.
"Using the GPS tool to analyse the DNA of sole Yiddish and non-Yiddish speakers, we were able to predict the possible ancestral location where Yiddish originated over 1,000 years ago -- a question which linguists have debated over for many years."
He added: "North east Turkey is the only place in the world where these place names exist -- which strongly implies that Yiddish was established around the first millennium at a time when Jewish traders who were plying the Silk Road moved goods from Asia to Europe wanted to keep their monopoly on trade.
"They did this by inventing Yiddish -- a secret language that very few can speak or understand other than Jews. Our findings are in agreement with an alternative theory that suggests Yiddish has Iranian, Turkish, and Slavic origins and explains why Yiddish contains 251 words for the terms 'buy' and 'sell'. This is what we can expect from a language of experienced merchants."
Yiddish, which incorporates German, Slavic and Hebrew, and is written in Aramaic letters, is commonly thought to be an old German dialect.
However, an alternative theory proposed by Professor Paul Wexler from the University of Tel Aviv and also an author on the study, suggests that Yiddish is a Slavic language that used to have both Slavic grammar and words but in time shed its Slavic lexicon and replaced it with common and unfamiliar German words.
The findings of the study, published today (Wednesday 20 April 2016) in Genome Biology and Evolution, led researchers to believe that towards the end of the first millennium, Ashkenazic Jews may have relocated to Khazaria before moving into Europe half a millennium later after the fall of the Khazarian Empire, and during a time when the international trading networks collapsed.
As Yiddish became the primary language of Ashkenazic Jews, the language began to acquire new words from other cultures while retaining its Slavic grammar. [end excerpt]
* "Scholars Blast New Study Tracing Ashkenazi Jews to Khazars of Ancient Turkey" (2016-05-03, [] [begin excerpt]: The disputed theory centers on the presumed mass conversion to Judaism of the Khazars — an extinct multiethnic kingdom that included Iranians, Turks, Slavs and Circassians — in the eighth century. Largely unsupported by genetic studies, it is popular in anti-Semitic and anti-Zionist literature because it “is seen to dispel the notion of Jewish peoplehood, presenting it as a hoax,” DellaPergola said. [end excerpt]
* " 'Jews a Race' Genetic Theory Comes Under Fierce Attack by DNA Expert; Israeli Scientist Challenges Hypothesis of Middle East Origins" (2013-05-07, []

* "The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses" (.pdf) [], abstract:
The question of Jewish ancestry has been the subject of controversy for over two centuries and
has yet to be resolved. The “Rhineland Hypothesis” depicts Eastern European Jews as a
“population isolate” that emerged from a small group of German Jews who migrated eastward
and expanded rapidly. Alternatively, the “Khazarian Hypothesis” suggests that Eastern European
Jew descended from the Khazars, an amalgam of Turkic clans that settled the Caucasus in the
early centuries CE and converted to Judaism in the 8th century. Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman
Jews continuously reinforced the Judaized Empire until the 13th century. Following the collapse
of their empire, the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is
therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars. Thus far, however, the Khazar’s
contribution has been estimated only empirically, as the absence of genome-wide data from
Caucasus populations precluded testing the Khazarian Hypothesis. Recent sequencing of modern
Caucasus populations prompted us to revisit the Khazarian Hypothesis and compare it with the
Rhineland Hypothesis. We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses to compare these
two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian Hypothesis and portray the European Jewish
genome as a mosaic of Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating
previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry. We further describe major difference among
Caucasus populations explained by early presence of Judeans in the Southern and Central
Caucasus. Our results have important implications on the demographic forces that shaped the
genetic diversity in the Caucasus and medical studies.

The following article appears to be written in the spirit of Purim! A quote attributed to Golda Meir appears online only among "right-wing" online news sites reproducing the following article []. For a writer such as the following to publicly present as evidence the book "The Thirteenth Tribe" may be an indication of good satire, yet the article contains evidence linked to reputable sources, but alongside quotes from some "anonymous Mossad agents".
* "Leaked report: Israel acknowledges Jews in fact Khazars; Secret plan for reverse migration to Ukraine" (2014-03-18, by Prof. Jim Wald at Hampton College, via []:
(Our Russian and Ukrainian correspondents Hirsh Ostropoler and I. Z. Grosser-Spass also contributed to this story, delayed due to the crisis over the Crimean referendum.)
Fast-breaking Developments -
Followers of Middle Eastern affairs know two things: always expect the unexpected, and never write off Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu, who has more political lives than the proverbial cat.
Only yesterday came news that Syrian rebels plan to give Israel the Golan Heights in exchange for creation of a no-fly zone against the Assad regime []. In an even bolder move, it is now revealed, Israel will withdraw its settlers from communities beyond the settlement blocs—and relocate them at least temporarily to Ukraine. Ukraine made this arrangement on the basis of historic ties and in exchange for desperately needed military assistance against Russia. This surprising turn of events had an even more surprising origin: genetics, a field in which Israeli scholars have long excelled [].

A Warlike Turkic People—and a Mystery -
It is well known that, sometime in the eighth to ninth centuries, the Khazars, a warlike Turkic people, converted to Judaism and ruled over a vast domain in what became southern Russia and Ukraine. What happened to them after the Russians destroyed that empire around the eleventh century has been a mystery. Many have speculated that the Khazars became the ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews.
Arabs have long cited the Khazar hypothesis in attempts to deny a Jewish historical claim to the land of Israel. During the UN debate over Palestine Partition, Chaim Weizmann responded, sarcastically []: “lt is very strange. All my life I have been a Jew, felt like a Jew, and I now learn that I am a Khazar.” In a more folksy vein, Prime Minister Golda Meir famously said:  “Khazar, Schmazar. There is no Khazar people. I knew no Khazars In Kiev. Or Milwaukee. Show me these Khazars of whom you speak.”
Contrarian Hungarian ex-communist and scientist Arthur Koestler brought the Khazar hypothesis to a wider audience with The Thirteenth Tribe (1976) [], in the hope that disproving a common Jewish “racial” identity would end antisemitism. Clearly, that hope has not been fulfilled. Most recently, left-wing Israeli historian Shlomo Sand’s The Invention of the Jewish People [] [] took Koestler’s thesis in a direction he had not intended, arguing that because Jews were a religious community descended from converts they do not constitute a nation or need a state of their own. Scientists, however, dismissed the Khazar hypothesis because the genetic evidence did not add up []. Until now. In 2012, Israeli researcher Eran Elhaik published a study claiming to prove that Khazar ancestry is the single largest element in the Ashkenazi gene pool. Sand declared himself vindicated, and progressive organs such as Haaretz [] and The Forward trumpeted the results [].
Israel seems finally to have thrown in the towel. A blue-ribbon team of scholars from leading research institutions and museums has just issued a secret report to the government, acknowledging that European Jews are in fact Khazars. (Whether this would result in yet another proposal to revise the words to “Hatikvah” remains to be seen [].) At first sight, this would seem to be the worst possible news, given the Prime Minister’s relentless insistence on the need for Palestinian recognition of Israel as a “Jewish state” and the stagnation of the peace talks. But others have underestimated him at their peril. An aide quipped, when life hands you an etrog, you build a sukkah.
Speaking off the record, he explained, “We first thought that admitting we are really Khazars was one way to get around Abbas’s insistence that no Jew can remain in a Palestinian state []. Maybe we were grasping at straws. But when he refused to accept that, it forced us to think about more creative solutions. The Ukrainian invitation for the Jews to return was a godsend. Relocating all the settlers within Israel in a short time would be difficult for reasons of logistics and economics. We certainly don’t want another fashlan like the expulsion of the settlers in the Gaza Hitnatkut [disengagement].
Speaking on deep background, a well-placed source in intelligence circles said: “We’re not talking about all the Ashkenazi Jews going back to Ukraine. Obviously that is not practical. The press as usual exaggerates and sensationalizes; this is why we need military censorship.”

Khazaria 2.0? -
All Jews who wish to return would be welcomed back without condition as citizens, the more so if they take part in the promised infusion of massive Israeli military assistance, including troops, equipment, and construction of new bases. If the initial transfer works, other West Bank settlers would be encouraged to relocate to Ukraine, as well. After Ukraine, bolstered by this support, reestablishes control over all its territory, the current Autonomous Republic of Crimea would once again become an autonomous Jewish domain []. The small-scale successor to the medieval empire of Khazaria (as the peninsula, too, was once known) would be called, in Yiddish, Chazerai.
“As you know,” the spokesman continued, “the Prime Minister has said time and again: we are a proud and ancient people whose history here goes back 4,000 years. The same is true of the Khazars: just back in Europe and not quite as long. But look at the map: the Khazars did not have to live within ‘Auschwitz borders.’ ”
“As the Prime Minister has said, no one will tell Jews where they may or may not live on the historic territory of their existence as a sovereign people. He is willing to make painful sacrifices for peace, even if that means giving up part of our biblical homeland in Judea and Samaria. But then you have to expect us to exercise our historical rights somewhere else. We decided this will be on the shores of the Black Sea, where we were an autochthonous people for more than 2000 years. Even the great non-Zionist historian Simon Dubnow said we had the right to colonize Crimea []. It’s in all the history books. You can look it up.”
“We’d like to think of it as sort of a homeland-away-from-home,” added the anonymous intelligence source. “Or the original one,” he said with a wink. “After all, Herzl wrote about the Old-New Land [], didn’t he? And the transition shouldn’t be too difficult for the settlers because, you know, they’ll still get to feel as if they are pioneers: experience danger, construct new housing, carry weapons. The women can continue to wear scarves on their heads, and the food won’t be very different from what they already eat.”
In retrospect, we should have seen this coming, said a venerable State Department Arabist, ticking off the signs on his fingers: a little-noticed report that Russia was cracking down on Israeli smuggling of Khazar artifacts [], the decisions of both Spain [] and Portugal [] to give citizenship to descendants of their expelled Jews, as well as evidence that former IDF soldiers were already leading militias in support of the Ukrainian government []. And now, also maybe the possibility that the missing Malaysian jet was diverted to Central Asia [].
A veteran Middle East journalist said: “It’s problematic, but in a perverse way, brilliant. In one fell swoop, Bibi has managed to confound friend and foe alike. He’s put the ball back in the Palestinians’ court and relieved the pressure from the Americans without actually making any real concessions. Meanwhile, by lining up with the Syrian rebels and Ukraine, as well as Georgia and Azerbaijan, he compensates for the loss of the Turkish alliance and puts pressure on both Assad and Iran. And the new Cypriot-Israeli gas deal [] props up Ukraine and weakens the economic leverage of both the Russians and the Gulf oil states. Just brilliant.”
Given the confluence of the weekend and the Purim and Saint Patrick’s Day holidays, reporters scrambled to get responses. Reactions from around the world trickled in.
• Members of the YESHA Council of settlers, some of them evidently the worse for wear after too much festival slivovitz, were caught completely off-guard. Always wary of Netanyahu, whom they regard as a slick opportunist rather than reliable ideological ally, they refused to comment until they had further assessed the situation.
Most of the hastily offered reactions fell into the predictable categories.
• Right-wing antisemitic groups pounced on the story as vindication of their conspiracy theories, claiming that this was the culmination of the Jews’ centuries-old plan to avenge the defeat of Khazaria by the Russians in the Middle Ages, a reprise of Israel’s support for Georgia in 2008. “Jews have memories as long as their noses,” one declared.
• From Ramallah, a Fatah spokesman said the offer was a start but did not go nearly far enough toward satisfying Palestinian demands. Holding up an image of a Khazar warrior from an archaeological artifact, he explained:
There is a continuum of conquest and cruelty. It’s very simple, genetics does not lie. We see the results today: the Zionist regime and brutal Occupation Forces are descended from warlike barbarians. Palestinians are descended from peaceful pastoralists, in fact, from the ancient Israelites that you have falsely claimed as your ancestors. By the way, it is not true, however, that your ancestors ever had a temple in Jerusalem.
• The famously reliable unofficial intelligence website DAFTKAfile admitted:
Boy, are our faces red. We were caught flat-footed and thought that the return to Spain and Portugal was the real story. Obviously, that was an impeccably planned and clever feint to distract attention from the coming revolution in Ukraine. Nicely played, Mossad.
• Prolific blogger Richard Sliverstein, whose knowledge of Jewish culture and uncanny ability to ferret out military secrets regularly provoke astonishment even among his critics, commented:
Frankly, I’m surprised that my Mossad sources did not get this story to me first. But I’ve been up against a deadline for an essay on the kabbalistic significance of sesame seeds, the main ingredient in hummus, so I haven’t caught up on my email. But, do I feel vindicated? Well, yes, but it’s scant satisfaction. I’ve been saying for years that the Jews are descended from Mongol-Tatar Khazars, but it has barely made a dent in the propaganda armor of these Zionist hasbaroid dolts.
• An official of a leading human-rights NGO said:
Evacuating illegal settlements must be a part of any peace deal, but first forcing settlers to leave Palestine and then resettling them in Ukraine may be a violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention. We’ll see what the ICC has to say about this. And if they think they can be even more trigger-happy in Ukraine than the West Bank, they have another thing coming.
• Ultra-Ultra-Orthodox spokesman Menuchem Yontef (formerly of Inowraclaw) welcomed the news:
We reject the Zionist state, which is illegitimate until Mashiach comes. We don’t care where we live as long as we can study the Torah and obey its commandments in full. However, we refuse to serve in the military there as well as here. And—we also want subsidies. That is G-d’s will.
• The spokeswoman for a delegation of Episcopalian peace activists, reached after the Christ at the Checkpoint conference in Bethlehem, said, with tears in her eyes:
We applaud this consistency of principle. If only all Jews would think like Menuchem Yontef—in fact, I’d like to call them “Menuchem Yontef Jews”: “M. Y. Jews,” for short—then antisemitism would disappear and members of all three Abrahamic faiths would again live together peacefully here as they did before the advent of Zionism. The nation-state is a relic of the nineteenth century, which has caused untold suffering. The most urgent task for world peace is the immediate creation of a free and sovereign Palestine.
• Noted academic and theorist Judith Buntler mused:
It may seem like a paradox to establish alterity or ‘interruption’ at the heart of ethical relations. But to know that we have first to consider what such terms mean. One might argue that the distinctive trait of Khazarian identity is that it is interrupted by alterity, that the relation to the gentile defines not only its diasporic situation, but one of its most fundamental ethical relations. Although such a statement may well be true (meaning that it belongs to a set of statements that are true), it manages to reserve alterity as a predicate of a prior subject. The relation to alterity becomes one predicate of ‘being Khazarian.’ It is quite another thing to understand that very relationship as challenging the idea of ‘Khazarian’ as a static sort of being, one that is adequately described as a subject. . . . coexistence projects can only begin with the dismantling of political Zionism.
• Anti-Israel BDS (Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions) leader Ali Abubinomial put it more simply. Pounding his desk, he fumed, “So, Israel and Khazaria? This is what the Zionists mean by a ‘two-state solution’?! Do the math! Has no one read my book?”
• Students for Justice in Palestine (SJP) called an emergency meeting to establish ties with the Pecheneg Liberation Organization (PLO), saying, “Pechenegs should not pay the price for European antisemitism.” The new solidarity group, “Students for Pechenegs in Ukraine” (SPUK), proclaimed as its motto: “From the Black to the Caspian Sea, We’re Gonna Find Somebody to Free!”
• For his part, peace activist and former East Jerusalem administrator Myron Benvenuti responded with equanimity: “I’ve got nothing to worry about: I’m Sephardic and my family has lived here for centuries. Anyway, if I have to go somewhere else, it’s going to be Spain, not Ukraine: more sunshine, less gunfire.”
The consensus of the broad majority of “Middle Israel,” which feels that Netanyahu is not doing enough for peace but also questions the sincerity of the Palestinians, is skeptical and despairing. One woman said, in frustration: We all long for an agreement but just cannot see how to achieve it. For now, all we can see is this Chazerai.
* * *
Update March 17:
Latest reports, including Vladimir Putin’s recognition of Crimea as a “sovereign and independent state,” and the estimate that relocation of Israeli settlers in any peace agreement would cost $10 billion, confirm the details of the above story. Ed.

Then: Khazarian barbarian. Warrior with prisoner, image from archaeological object.
[source: Wikimedia Commons] []

a warlike people: Khazar battle axe, c. 7th-9th centuries

The Khazar Empire, from M. J-H. Schnitzler’s map of The Empire of Charlemagne and that of the Arabs, (Strasbourg, 1857) []

the Khazar Empire, map of Europe in the Age of Charles the Great, from Karl von Spruner, _Historisch-geographischer Hand-Atlas_ (Gotha, 1854) []

No “Auschwitz borders”: the great extent of the Khazar Empire (pink, at right) is readily apparent in this map of Europe circa 800, by Monin (Paris, 1841). Compare with Charlemagne’s empire (pink, at left) []

Black Sea, showing Khazar presence in Crimea and coastal regions: Rigobert Bonne, Imperii Romani Distracta. Pars Orientalis, (Paris, 1780). Note Ukraine and Kiev at upper left. At right: Caspian Sea, also labeled, as was the custom, as the Khazar Sea []

Talmudic Rabbinical authorities exhibited a propensity towards conquest []:

“The best of the gentiles: kill him; the best of snakes: smash its skull; the best of women: is filled with witchcraft.” Kiddushin 66c The uncensored version of this text appears in Tractate Soferim (New York, M. Higer, 1937), 15:7, p. 282. “The best of the gentiles should all be killed.”

* Map, comment: Khazar movements occurred among much the same lines.

* 1200s AD to 1600s AD (between 800 to 301 years BM): "Jewish Bankers and the Holy See (RLE: Banking & Finance): From the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Century" []. The Jewish community in Rome is the oldest in Europe, the only one to have existed continuously for over 2,000 years. This detailed study of the Jewish banking community in Italy is therefore of special value and interest. Poliakov’s classic account of the rise and fall of the Jewish bankers is at the same time the story of medieval finance in general, its decline, and the birth of ‘modern’ finance. The author traces the economic and theological implication of each stage in the ambiguous relationship that developed between the Jewish money trade and the Holy See. He shows that the protection enjoyed by the Jews from the Holy See had not only theological, but also economic roots. The study ends with an account of the introduction of modern, ‘capitalist’ techniques and of the consequent inevitable decline of the Jewish money trade.

* 1600s AD to 1700s AD (between 400 to 201 years BM): "Jewish Families and the Habsburg Tobacco Monopoly" (2014-04-22, []

* From "Arca Noë" book by Kircher: "Migrations after the Flood" map [], showing Hebrew script for placenames of the realms of Hispania, Gallia, Germania, and Italia... all which together represent the "western Roman Empire" and the realm of the kings adhering to the Bishop of Rome.

* "Divine examples of God's severe judgments upon Sabbath-breakers, in their unlavvful sports" (1671) [], full image []

* "Austria - a special story" (2007, by Michael Palomino) []

* "Jews in Austria" (2007, by Michael Palomino):
- Part 1: Middle Ages [] [begin excerpt]:
Legend about Judeisaptan - first Jews brought by Roman legions - Jewish charter since 1238 -
According to legend, a Jewish kingdom named Judeisaptan was founded in the territory in times before recorded history. Jews apparently arrived in Austria with the Roman legions. They are mentioned in the Raffelstatten customs ordinance (c. 903-06) among traders paying tolls on slaves and merchandise. The earliest Jewish tombstone in the region, found near St. Stephan (Carinthia), dates from 1130. The first reliable evidence of a permanent Jewish settlement is the appointment (1194) of Shlom the Mintmaster. (col. 887)
During the reign of Frederick I of Babenberg (1195-98) there was an influx of Jews from Bavaria and the Rhineland. A synagogue is recorded in Vienna in 1204. By then, Jews were also living in Klosterneuburg, Krems, Tulln, and Wiener Neustadt. [end excerpt]
- Part 2: Jews from 16th to 19th century []
- Part 3: From the revolution 1848 to 1918 []
- Part 4: From 1918-1938 []
- Part 5: From 1938-1945 []
- Part 6: 1945-1970 []

* "Jewry in Vienna" (2007, by Michael Palomino):
- Part 1: Middle Ages []
- Part 2: 17th and 18th century []
- Part 3: 1815-1938 []
- Part 4: Holocaust period 1938-1945 []
- Part 5: 1945-1970 []

* "Jews in other Austrian towns" (2007, by Michael Palomino):
- Jews in Graz []


* "Before Islam: When Saudi Arabia Was a Jewish Kingdom; The discovery of the oldest-known pre-Islamic Arabic writing in Saudi Arabia, from ca. 470 CE, evidently caused some consternation, given its Christian and Jewish context" (2016-03-15, []

* "Jews Are a 'Race,' Genes Reveal" (2012-05-04, []
* "Ashkenazi Jews Are Genetically European" (2013-10-08, []
* "Ashkenazi Jews descend from 350 people, scientists say; Geneticists have found serial bottlenecks in European Jews’ history and postulate that today’s community is just 600 to 800 years old" (2014-09-10, []
* "DNA ties Ashkenazi Jews to group of just 330 people from Middle Ages" (2014-09-09, [] [begin excerpt]: “Ashkenaz” in Hebrew refers to Germany, and Ashkenazi Jews are those who originated in Eastern Europe. (Sephardic Jews, by contrast, are from the areas around the Mediterranean Sea, including Portugal, Spain, the Middle East and Northern Africa.) About 80% of modern Jews have Ashkenazi ancestry, according to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. [ ... ]
Despite their close ties with Europe, no more than half of their DNA comes from ancient Europeans, the researchers found. Only 46% to 50% of the DNA in the 128 samples originated with the group of people who were also the ancestors of the Flemish people in the study. Those ancient people split off from the ancestors of today’s Middle Easterners more than 20,000 years ago, with a founding group of about 3,500 to 3,900 people, according to the study.
The rest of the Ashkenazi genome comes from the Middle East, the researchers reported. This founding group “fused” with the European founding group to create a population of 250 to 420 individuals. These people lived 25 to 32 generations ago, and their descendants grew at a rate of 16% to 53% per generation, the researchers calculated. [end excerpt]

Alkebulan relations in the Roman Empire:
* "Hanno the Navigator" (1998, []

* "Narrative of the Portuguese embassy to Abyssinia during the years 1520-1527"
by Alvares, Francisco, d. ca. 1540; Stanley, Henry Edward John Stanley, Baron, 1827-1903
* "The discovery of Abyssinia by the Portuguese in 1520 (Carta das novas que vieram a el rey Nosso Senhor do descobrimento do preste Joham)", Lisbon, 1521, compiled from letters written by Diogo Lopes de Sequeira and Pero Gomes Teixeira

* "The Origin of the Georgian Alphabet" [], "The Georgian Alphabet: A Gallery of Specimens" []

"Seven Sights of the World" / "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World"
Many of the Wonders, being affected by earthquakes, were re-furbished and continued to be used until the Black Death, when social cohesion collapsed and the importance of the Wonders was lost.
* "The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World" ( [] [begin excerpt]: The idea of creating a list of architectural wonders arose following Alexander the Great's conquest of much of the known world in the 4th century BC, which gave Greek travelers access to the older civilizations of the Egyptians, Persians, and Babylonians.
* ( [] [begin excerpt]: Of the original Seven Wonders, only one—the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest of the ancient wonders—remains relatively intact. The Colossus of Rhodes, Lighthouse of Alexandria and Mausoleum at Halicarnassus were destroyed in earthquakes, and the Temple of Artemis and Statue of Zeus deliberately destroyed. The location and ultimate fate of the Hanging Gardens is unknown. [end excerpt]

The Colossus of Rhodes
* "The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World" ( [] [begin excerpt]: An earthquake toppled the Colossus only 65 years after its construction, and it lay in ruins for nearly a thousand years until its remains were scrapped and carried off on the backs of 900 camels to be melted down.

The Mausoleum
* "The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World" ( [] [begin excerpt]: Christian crusaders plundered the ruins of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus in the 16th century and built a fort out of its remains

Patrons of History
* Images from "Latium" by Kircher:
- Villa d’Este [];
- Villa of Maecenas [];
- Villa of Quintilius Varus []

Brief biography of Albertus Magnus (b.1200 - d. 1280) []

* 1750, Roman Empire in Gallia by Cellarius, info [], map
[] [] [] []
States of the Gauls, containing the three Monarchies who parted what Clovis had at the end of the Conquest

* 1763 historical map of Ancient Rome, info [], map [] []


* "Woolly Mammoths Remains: Catastrophic Origins?" (by Sue Bishop) []

* VISIGOTHS (at Gaul) Solidus, "In the name of Roman emperor Libius Severus" (461-465) []
* Tiberius II. Constantinus (578 - 582) minted at Constantinople []
* Heraclius (610 - 641) Solidus minted 610 - 613 at Constantinople []
* Heraclius (610 - 641) Solidus minted 613 - c.625 []
* Heraclius (610 - 641) Solidus minted c.625 - 629 at Constantinople []
* LOMBARDS Solidus, "In the name of Byzantine emperor Constans II" (641-668) []
* Constans II (641 - 668) Solidus minted 642 - 647 at Constantinople []
* Constans II (641 - 668) Solidus minted 651 - 654  at Constantinople []
* VISIGOTHS (at Spain), Wamba (672-680), minted at Toleto (Toledo) []
* Iustinianus II (685 - 695) Solidus minted 685 - 687 at Constantinople []
* Tiberius III (698 - 705) Solidus minted at Constantinople []
* LOMBARDS (at Beneventum) Solidus "In the name of Byzantine emperor Justinian II" (685-695, 705-711), with types of Anastasius II (713-715) []
* LOMBARDS (at Beneventum) Liutprand (751-758), "In the name of Byzantine emperor Justinian II" (685-695, 705-711), with types of Anastasius II (713-715) []
* Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. 913-959 []

The Early Dated Coins of Europe, 1234-1500 By Robert A. Levinson []

* "Dated Texts Mentioning Prophet Muḥammad from 1-100 AH / 622-719 CE" ( []
* "Taboo Numismatics Part I: A very early Islamic portrait of the Prophet Muhammad?" (by Ted Kandell) []
* "Muslim coins with Christian cross and the name Mohammed" []
* The Arab-Byzantine “Three Standing Imperial Figures” Dīnār From The Time Of Umayyad Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik, 72-74 AH / 692-694 CE []

* Gold coin of Abd al-Malik ( []:

The gold dinar struck in the year 77 of the Islamic calendar, (AD 696-7) is significant for a number of reasons: it is the first issue of Islamic coinage without pictorial representation and represents a decisive break away from a coinage that hitherto had imitated the coins of the Sasanians and the Byzantines, whose territories had been incorporated into the new Muslim empire.
This dinar was struck by Abd al-Malik, fifth of the Umayyad caliphs (reigned AD 685-705) - the Umayyads being the first great dynasty of Islam (AD 661-750) whose capital was at Damascus in Syria. Abd al-Malik not only initiated the reform of the coinage but was also responsible for the construction of one of the most iconic buildings in the Islamic world, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, part of an ambitious plan to build up and consolidate the Muslim presence in Greater Syria. Quite apart from the significance of this coin for the monetary history of the Islamic world, the style of the coin also tells another important story.
The inscriptions proclaim the very essence of the faith of Islam and include the phrase: ‘there is no god but God, he has no associate, Muhammad is the prophet of God’, in addition to other verses from the Qur’an (Qur’an 9:33 and 112). Qur’anic texts also appear in the Dome of the Rock made of mosaic placed high up on the walls of the ambulatory and they are written in the style of script known as Kufic.
Arabic was an oral language only until the Revelation to the Prophet Muhammad in early seventh century Arabia. It developed as a script in order to set down the words of the Revelation to prevent them being lost. The alphabet adopted was one that was based on a style of Aramaic script used by the Nabateans whose capital was at Petra in Jordan. Early developments evolved into Kufic an exceptionally elegant script characterised by letters that are simple and angular in shape. What is crucial about Abd al-Malik’s dinar is that along with the inscriptions in the Dome of the Rock, they both provide us with the concrete markers we need to understand the evolution of this remarkable script: the dinar is dated 77/696-7 and the Dome of the Rock was completed in 72/692. This tells us that by the late seventh century a script had evolved that was intended to reflect and honour the beauty and power of the Revelation. It was as effective written on a tiny coin as large scale on the walls of the Dome of the Rock.
Script became a defining feature of Islamic art developing, over the centuries, complex rules to create elegance and symmetry. Such is the flexibility of the Arabic script that even today, some 1400 years after the appearance of the Kufic script on Abd al-Malik’s dinar, it continues to provide inspiration for modern calligraphers.

* Der Adler [], being an emblem in common with the Imperial House of New Rome at Byzantine, adopted in the western Roman Empire c. 1250 AD (750 years BM)

Seal of Conrad II (1029), with a depiction of the eagle-sceptre. []

Royal coat of arms of the Hohenstaufen emperors (1155–1197) [], after its appearance in Codex Manesse (c. 1304) [] with Henry VI (r. 1169–1197) [].

Imperial eagle on a coin of Frederick II (r. 1197–1250) []

13th-century depiction of the arms of Otto IV (early depiction of a double-headed Reichsadler)  []

Coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire c. 1510, the eagle showing on its feathers the arms of the 'Reichsländer' (lit. 'Imperial Countries') which form the Empire [] []


* "Important Judeo-Persian bibles in the British Library" (2014-02-05, []


* "Chamber of secrets: Centuries-old remains of 50 people found in Westminster Abbey toilet block" (2015-09-23, [] [begin excerpt]: Ancient human remains of up to 50 individuals have been found by workmen during the demolition of a Westminster Abbey toilet block. The bones are thought to have belonged to people from the 11th or 12th centuries, with the body of a small child found amid the remains of 50 adults. “What the child is doing there is one of the many unanswered questions,” Westminster Abbey’s archaeologist Warwick Rodwell told the Guardian. “It is a feature of many ecclesiastical sites that you find the remains of women and children in places where you might not quite expect them,” Rodwell added. The child was buried in a wooden coffin, leading experts to believe that he or she was a person of some importance. The remains were found as workmen demolished a 1950s-era lavatory block in order to make room for a new tower space through which visitors will eventually be able to access the abbey’s attic. Many of the bones were densely stacked together and experts think they may have belonged to senior clergy given their proximity to the main building, which was itself reserved for kings, queens and nobility. [end excerpt]

* "Sunken city known as 'Britain's Atlantis' was swept into the sea by years of violent storms; Scientists say sediment gathered from nearby cliffs has confirmed the severity of the weather which led to the demise of the port town of Dunwich, Suffolk" (2016-02-21, []:
Scientists have uncovered evidence of the violent storms which destroyed a lost town known as 'Britain's Atlantis'.
The tiny village of Dunwich, Suffolk, was the 10th largest town in England during the 11th century.
But the coastal community was swept into the sea by a succession of huge storms.
Researchers say sediment gathered from nearby cliffs has confirmed the severity of the weather during this period.
Professor David Sear said: "[They were] like the south coast storms of 2013-14, at least once a year for decades.
"The town's decline was hastened by two great storms in 1286 and 1326, which resulted in the loss of its vital harbour."
Prof Sear said pollen analysis revealed how "people gave up on Dunwich" after the port was blocked by silt.
The University of Southampton scientist is taking part in a three-year £900,000 project to investigate Dunwich.
A diver used ultrasound to "illuminate" finds on the seabed, and the marshes and eroding cliffs were surveyed.
The underwater research was carried out using acoustic imaging technology, and has unearthed a series of buildings.
"We use sound to create a video image of the seabed and the reason we do that is because when you dive at Dunwich it's pitch black," Prof Sear said.
"We found the ruins of about four churches and we've also found ruins of what we think was a toll house."
Bill Jenman, spokesman for the project, said the team had have found evidence that a community was in place on the site as far back as the Iron Age.
He said: "We found loads of pottery, a lot more than we've found before, so sort of High Medieval - the peak of the affluence of Dunwich.
"We can push the story of Dunwich certainly back to the Iron Age, and we know people were here back into the Stone Age.
"We know it was a fairly major town in the Anglo-Saxon period."

* "Chronology of 500 Year Jesuit Deception and Flat Earth" ( []



Materials from
* Book of Civilization (.pdf) []
* "Falsification of the Classical Texts" (by Vadim Cherny) []

* "The Medieval Empire of the Israelites" book (2005), Preface [], Chapter 1 [], Chapter 4 [], Chapter 19 []. Entire book translated into Russian (.pdf) [].
ISBN 10: 0973757604 / ISBN 13: 9780973757606
Published versions:
* New Tradition Toronto (2004), documented at []
* New Tradition Sociological Society (2005-07-18), documented at [], last sold by [] []. Also attributed as having been published 2003 at [], [] []

Robert Grishin and Vladimir Melamed, The Medieval Empire of the Israelites (New Tradition Sociological Society, 2003. pp. 126-132), transcribed at [].
Geopolymer concrete was, to the Egyptians, a secret of great military importance . . . Using it, they were able to quickly and efficiently raise defensive fortresses with walls of any height and thickness. It was a building material of the majority of the grandiose structures of Egypt . . .
Joseph Davidovits has studied . . . this construction material . . . It turned out that the mud from the Nile River contains alumina, which is an important constituent component . . . Another component is sodium carbonate, which exists in large quantities in the Egyptian deserts and salt lakes. The rest of the components necessary for geopolymerization are in abundance.
Joseph Davidovits' proposals find convincing support. On the blocks that are located on the upper tiers of the pyramids are found the impressions of mats on their surfaces. This means that the builders made forms using mats and filled them with concrete. Simple and effective. No building technology is needed which is capable of locating large-tonnage blocks. One can make a block, for example of 500 tonnes, since it is only necessary to pour the concrete quickly, without interruption.
While studying examples of blocks, Joseph Davidovits discovered hairs in one of them. Three laboratories where he turned with a request to determine what it is answered ambiguously: "A small filament from three organic fibers, most likely hairs." The presence of hairs in natural limestone has been ruled out. Limestone was formed nearly 50 million years ago on the bottom of the ocean . . .
The reaction of the Egyptologists to Joseph Davidovits' discoveries was a curious one. In 1982, the well-known Egyptologist, Phillippe Lauer presented the chemist two examples of stones from the pyramids of Cheops and Teti and demanded evidence that they are artificial. As a result of chemical analysis in two different laboratories it was discovered unambiguously that the examples are made from artificial stone and are not fragments of natural rock. They contain chemicals which are not encountered in rock . . .
Geopolymer concrete allows unraveling also the numerous mysteries of the Egyptian stone articles which also are considered ancient. For example, stone amphora. They were made supposedly of diorite, one of the hardest of stones. Modern sculptors do not even try to use it. The Egyptian craftsmen, not having according to traditional views, anything besides copper chisels, nevertheless used it constantly. And achieved incredible results with it !
. . . There is direct evidence that many Egyptian statues were made from geopolymer concrete. The "unfinished head of the Queen Nefertiti," which has become a standard for feminine beauty for all time, is well known to everyone. It is considered that the sculpture was made from natural stone . . . But what do we see ? A seam goes along the line of symmetry of Nefertiti's head, along the middle of the forehead, through the tip of the nose and along the middle of the chin. Such a seam could have arisen only if the sculpture had been cast in a form made beforehand, It is done the same way today when mass-producing anything molded. That is, the form is created from two or more sectional parts, a liquid mass is poured inside, and when the mass hardens, the parts which comprise the mold are separated. Seams remain along the joints which are then ground down. The basic technology involved has not changed in many centuries.
. . . One more fact that is mysterious for the traditionalists. It is a question of the so-called Egyptian stone engraving. The engraving possesses truly unbelievable properties. While studying it, Joseph Davidivits discovered that the instrument with the aid of which the inscriptions were made supposedly went into the stone so assuredly that it left no chips and no burrs. The bottom of the inscriptions is completely even and smooth, without traces of the cutting edge of the instruments. And the grains of the granite were not destroyed ! But this result cannot be duplicated today even if one cuts the inscriptions with an extra-hard cutting tool.
In fact, there are no mysteries here. The inscriptions were not carved, but embossed in the still soft geopolymer concrete. Therefore, hard specks that were encountered simply were pressed into the soft mass without any damage.

* "The Medieval Empire of the Israelites: Commentaire critique" in French (2014-02-27, []

Fomenko quotes:
[] (not so ancient egypt)
[] (not so ancient india)
[] (not so ancient china 1)
[] (not so ancient china 2)
[] (not so ancient china 3)


* "A Mysterious Metal" [ ]
One of the best-kept secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls has been the discovery of metals in the black ink. That finding was buried in unpublished results, and wasn't unearthed until 1996. The presence of metals further points to the scrolls being of medieval origin.
Scientific testing of the scrolls in the early 1950s found silver, manganese, iron and other metals in the black ink used on the scrolls. Scholars tried to downplay the discovery of these metals by saying that some of them, like copper and lead, were byproducts of leaching from a bronze inkwell. Yet silver, manganese and iron are not components in the making of bronze. The 1990s tests also detected the presence of strontium and titanium but could not tell if they were pure. (In its purest form, neither element was isolated until the 1800s.)
The presence of metals also contradicts the scholarly claim that the authors of the scrolls used Dead Sea water for ink, for the salty water contains no titanium, according to a chart of a scientific study from an Ivy League physicist. Scholars tell us that ink spiked with metals came after the writing of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Others tests revealed that cinnabar, a metal, was the prime element used in much of the red ink. Yet in biblical times, cinnabar was extremely expensive. Only King Herod himself could afford it for use as paint - and the authors of the scrolls called themselves "the poor" (a Christian term).
Cinnabar was not commonly used for ink in the Middle East until almost 1,000 years later. Scholars assume that the cinnabar on the scrolls came from Spain, but it was invented by the Chinese for ink. Arabs put metal in ink and probably borrowed the manufacture of cinnabar ink from the Chinese and made it very inexpensively.
Also, metals are corrosive on leather. After just 200 years, they begin to eat through the inked area. Many medieval texts with iron- or cinnabar-based ink have holes in the manuscripts where the ink was used. But from the color photos, there are no holes in the Dead Sea Scrolls in the areas of the cinnabar red ink, which suggests the process is just starting - and pinpoints the scrolls on a much shorter timeline.

* "WAS THE TORAH COMPOSED IN THE TIME OF MOSES; Evidence from the Bible indicates that many Torah laws were written later than the time of Moses; The late date of the Torah composition" []

* "A Jewish kingdom in ancient Babylon: Least known is the kingdom of Mar Zutra, that rose to brief prominence in the period after the redaction and editing of the Talmud" (2016-04-23, []

* "Forgeries in Historical Literature; The Historicity and Origin of Modern Day Religious Texts" (2013-08-09, []

* "Jerusalem in Old Maps and Views" (2003-02-12, []
* "Ancient Maps of Jerusalem" (updated 2005-01-06, []

* "Jerusalem Hoax: Identity of Jerusalem/al-Quds location as Jewish/Christian Origin/Biblical Holy Land first appeared during crusades. The contemporary Jewish community, e.g living in Spain or other parts,  did not endorse the Crusaders identification of the location. Jewish community only began endorsing the Christian view of the location much later may be as late as close to the beginning of Zionist movements" (by ‎Ehsan Butt, [], also at [].
A map of the area that includes Palestine dated 1045 AD , before crusades, does not show any place named Jerusalem:

* "Jerusalem Even Older Than Thought: Archaeologists Find 7,000-year-old Houses; Discovery made while building a road in Shuafat, in north Jerusalem, includes earliest-known houses in Jerusalem, gemstone beads and stone tools" (2016-02-17, []
* "Giant Village From 12,000 Years Ago Found in Galilee Overturns Theories; Scholars had thought climate stress in the late Natufian period forced humans in the Levant to revert to nomadism. Evidently, not so" (2016-02-17, []

* "Israel snubs UNESCO’s Temple Mount resolution with ancient Jerusalem papyrus" (2016-10-26, [] [begin excerpt]: The text, written on a 11cm by 2.5cm papyrus, was dated by the Israel Antiquities Authority to the 7th century BCE and was said to be the earliest Hebrew reference to Jerusalem outside of the Bible.
“From the king's maidservant, from Na'arat, jars of wine, to Jerusalem,” read the two lines of script. Archeologists believe it to be document detailing payment of taxes or transfer of goods. [end excerpt]

Oldest Qurans on display []

* "Islamic world had extraordinary effect on medieval philosophers: Charles Taliaferro" (2016-03-17, []:
“Muslim world had made such extraordinary headway in mathematics, algebra, medicine, and the sciences in general, it was inevitable that its philosophical contribution needed to be taken seriously by medieval philosophers,” Charles Taliaferro tells the Tehran Times.
Taliaferro, who teaches philosophy at St. Olaf College, says, “It was the translation of so many philosophical texts from Greco-Roman antiquity into Syriac, Persian and Arabic that was pivotal in the continuation of philosophical work after the fall of the Roman Empire.”
Following is the text of the interview:
Q: What was the impact of Islamic philosophy on western philosophy in the medieval age?
A: Islamic philosophy was highly significant in terms of offering positive, constructive views of time and space, the philosophy of causation with a developed theory of natural and divine causation, the understanding of God as necessarily existing, different accounts of the human soul, the active intellect, accounts of reason, virtue, happiness, and more. Arabic and Persian Muslim philosophers also provided an important challenge to Christian and Jewish philosophers in the medieval era as it provided the western world with a sophisticated, rich alternative to Christian and Jewish theism. As it became clear that the Muslim world had made such extraordinary headway in mathematics, algebra, medicine, and the sciences in general, it was inevitable that its philosophical contribution needed to be taken seriously by medieval philosophers.
Q: What was the impact of translation movement in the Islamic world on transforming the classical texts in the modern world?
A: It was the translation of so many philosophical texts from Greco-Roman antiquity into Syriac, Persian and Arabic that was pivotal in the continuation of philosophical work after the fall of the Roman Empire. It was through multiple sites, Sicily, Toledo in Spain, Antioch, and more, that the classical texts gradually reached western sites in which Islamic work entered the western intellectual world through Latin translations. Some textbooks today report that it was the conquest of Constantinople that was an important catalyst in bringing about the infusion of ancient Greek texts from Islamic sources into Europe and it was that event that fueled the Renaissance, but the texts, translations, and scholarship reached the west earlier and through non-violent exchanges. The impact of the translation movement of Arabic to Latin was major and was almost as powerful as the massive translation of Greek to Latin texts in the medieval era.
Q: In which branches of humanities was the impact of Islamic thought more impressive on western thought?
A: I would say philosophy, because work in metaphysics or theories of being, epistemology or theories of knowledge, and ethics all bear the marks of influence by Islamic philosophy, though this is rarely acknowledged. For example, most philosophy majors in the west are probably not aware that some of the arguments that they find in Aquinas, Descartes, Malebranche, David Hume, and others, all are represented in earlier Islamic sources, even if not each of these thinkers was directly aware of such precedence. But if you will allow me to go back to your first question about the impact of Islamic philosophy on the west, I would like to say not enough. An Islamic, Persian or Iranian philosopher-scientist-historian whom I believe to be someone who deserves to be taught throughout the world as one of the greatest and most admirable scholars is Al-Biruni, who flourished in the 11th century. He was an early explorer of the many philosophical and religious cultures in India who displayed the most extraordinary fairness in his research. I know of no other single historical figure who remained deeply faithful to his own religious tradition and practice and yet who was more fair, open-minded, and sympathetic, if that is the right word, to those non-Islamic sources he engaged. It is my hope that his extraordinary example might inspire all of us, in all branches of the humanities and sciences, to model his combination of acumen, careful argumentation, and intellectual generosity.
“It was through multiple sites, Sicily, Toledo in Spain, Antioch, and more, that the classical texts gradually reached western sites in which Islamic work entered the western intellectual world through Latin translations.”

* "9th Century Koran Returned to Turkey" (2000-02, by STEPHEN MANNING, AP Newsire), posted at []:
BALTIMORE (AP) -- John Hopkins University on Monday returned a section of a rare ninth century Koran to Turkey, which will reunite it with the rest of the holy book at an Istanbul museum. The first 18 chapters of the Gold Koran disappeared from Turkey sometime after 1756. The section entered the Hopkins collection in 1942 as part of a bequest of rare books. In 1998 it was appraised at between $1.9 million and $2.9 million. "I am pleased that this Koran will now be restored to its original home and reclaim its place as an important part of the Turkish national heritage,'' M. Istemihan Talay, minister of culture for Turkey, said during a ceremony at the Turkish Embassy in Washington. The Gold Koran is believed to have been created in either north Africa or an area that is part of modern-day Iraq. It is written in the early Arabic script Kufa, with lettering made of gold leaf. "This is the only intact example of the practice of copying the Koran into gold,'' said Marianna Shreve Simpson, director of curatorial affairs for the Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore. The half that wound up at Hopkins was last recorded in Turkey during an inventory conducted in 1756. Hopkins found out in 1993 that its section was part of a larger work but had no evidence it was improperly removed from Turkey, said James G. Neal, the university's dean of libraries. The Turkish Embassy asked Hopkins to return the rare document after it was displayed at the Walters Art Gallery in 1997. School officials decided to do so because its origin was unclear. As part of an agreement signed Monday, Turkey acknowledged that Hopkins did not act improperly in obtaining the Gold Koran. The section will be housed with the rest of the work in the Nuruosmaniye Library.

View the "Gold Koran" at [], []


* "Designing a Syrian Orthodox Panagia" (2012-12-07, []
But for the overall style of the image I began by looking at the wonderful Syriac manuscripts which influenced and were influenced by Persian miniatures. There are even fascinating images of Syrian-Mongolian iconography which were interesting to explore.
Syriac illumination of Constantine and Helen []

13th century image of a Mongolian Nestorian Bishop []

But still, I felt there was something missing, for although linked to other Syrian Christians, the “Church of St-Thomas” has a history and identity of its own.  I noticed that one of the main accusations against Indian Christians brought about by the belligerent Portuguese had been how they had too many resemblances with Hinduism, in their customs, rituals, etc., reason for which they attempted to make Indians into Baroque Latin Rite Catholics…  and so at this point I decided to plunge rather into Indian Art, gathering hints and forms that could complement traditional Christian iconological forms without clashing with them.    I did not want to be too explicit, but only give the image a flavor of its link to Indian culture.

The work from the the Rabbula Gospels - an illuminated Syriac book created in the 6th century and thought of as one of the earliest Christian Manuscripts - is priceless

* "Byzantine: The Rabbulla Gospels & Icons and Iconoclasm" (2013-09-10, []: The Rabbula Gospels is an illuminated Syriac book created in the 6th century and thought of as one of the earliest Christian Manuscripts. Within it’s pages are text of the Gospels accompanied with illustrations and decorations. It’s most famous images are the full page representations of the Crucifixion, Ascension, and Pentecost. It is one of the few surviving Byzantine works of it’s period, as much was destroyed during the Iconoclasm of the 8th century. Byzantine Icons (Icon is Greek for images), were found in the majority of Orthodox churches during this time. They were sacred paintings of religious figures, usually Christ, Mary, or saints and were used as a way to connect with the holy figures.
The destruction of these images originated from a belief that the second commandment in Exodus forbids images of God.
“Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them…” (Exodus 20:4)
The Rabulla Gospels are recognized as a wonderful example of the qualities of Persian art that contributed to Byzantine culture. Both Greek and Syriac elements are apparent in the imagery. The most notable of the Syriac elements are the elegant use of ornamentation, the level of intricacy, and inclusion of unique symbols such as the mandorla. The mandorla exists in this image to show the collision between heaven and earth with Christ in the center.
“The mandorla is the place where dualism disappears and we leave the world of opposites and rest in the heart of Jesus.” – Lawrence Bond
The page that I’m going to focus on in this post is of the ascension of Christ. This scene is unique in itself because it is based on the book of Acts, rather than the Gospel which is the subject of the accompanying text. It is also an altered version of the ascension in the book of Acts because of a few key changes. These changes are the dominant presence of Mary and Jesus rising on a chariot with symbols of the four evangelists, the man, lion, ox and eagle.
 Looking at the ascension image Jesus is shown in heaven surrounded by a host of angels, below on earth are saints and followers. I found it interesting how much attention is drawn to Mary. She is centered horizontally in the composition and is directly below Christ. Her dark robes stand out in the midst of white and gold clothes, but the most separating aspect of her from the other figures is her demeanor. Mary is gazing directly at the viewer with stoicism and seems removed from the drama of the scene. I believe this is an early example of the church’s appreciation for the Virgin Mary as a powerful religious figure. Choosing to include Mary in this image, when she is not mentioned in this scene of Acts shows that the artwork was created more with the intention of displaying beliefs of the church at the time rather than being biblically accurate.
Icons themselves were not focused on the physical but on the spiritual, therefore the figures are flat, without a direct light source. The features are idealized, usually geometrically based. The eyes are large and almond while the nose is long and thin.
Kleiner, Fred S., and Helen Gardner. Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History. Boston, MA: Thomson Higher Education, 2009. Print.
Nicholas, and H. Lawrence. Bond. Selected Spiritual Writings. New York: Paulist, 1997. Print.

* "Researcher reconstructs 1,000 year old ‘lost’ music from ancient manuscript" (2016-04-25, [] [begin excerpt]: After more than 20 years of research, songs from the Middle Ages are now being played for the first time in 1000 years.
All of this is thanks to Cambridge researcher Sam Barrett, who has been working painstakingly for years to reconstruct the music of a Latin text from the Cambridge Songs—an 11th century manuscript combining classical texts (as in ancient Roman and Greek authors) with a special kind of musical notation known as neumes. As is occasionally done today (like the song to help you remember the three kinds of rock in a cringey way), music was a popular way to memorize texts—such as the Latin text, The Consolation of Philosophy by Roman philosopher Boethius, from the Cambridge Songs. Neumes—symbols that represented music in the Middle Ages—were a way of recording how the songs sounded.
Recreating old tunes -
Reconstructing this music, then, seems simple—all you should have to do is look at the neumes, right? Sadly, it wasn’t this easy; there were two huge catches that kept the songs from being fully realized.
First, unlike something like guitar tab, neumes did not record notes—they were more musical outlines, and medieval musicians relied entirely on memory and traditions to play music. And once this died out in the 12th century, there was no one left to remember how these songs were supposed to sound. [end excerpt]

Nagorno-Karabakh []

* from Manuscript resources []:
- Opening page, beginning with the exclamation ‘Aaa’, from the Catholicon Anglicum, England (Yorkshire), 1483, Add MS 89074, f. 2r []
This is the only complete copy of one of the earliest English-Latin dictionaries ever made, and the first such dictionary in which all the words were placed in alphabetical order. From the dialect of some of the words, it appears to have been written in Yorkshire. Last seen in the late nineteenth century when the text was edited, and thought lost to scholarship forever, it had lain hidden in a private collection in Lincolnshire. The Catholicon Anglicum is of outstanding importance for our study both of the English language and English lexicography (which goes back much further than Dr Johnson!).
- Greek Manuscripts from the Circle of Aldus Manutius []
- A two-page mappa mundi from the beginning of a copy of Ranulph Higden’s Polychronicon, England, late 14th century []
- Latin is the lawful international language in Londini, as shown in this frontspiece in English using German script []

* []: ‘That the Church of England may enjoy the liberties granted them by Magna Carta’. It is interesting to note that such invocations of Magna Carta appeared around the same time as the first publication of the Latin and English versions of Magna Carta in 1508 and 1534 respectively. Indeed, given these ever increasing appeals to Magna Carta by opponents of the Reformation, it is little wonder that Thomas Cromwell — Henry VIII’s chief minister — made it a priority to ‘Remembre the Auncyent Cronycle of Magna Carta and how libera sit cam[e] into the statute’. The first printed edition of Magna Carta, 1508.


* " Early New World Maps" (2014-06-11, by Dr. Gunnar Thompson, for []

* "The Mystery of Egyptian Maize" lecture (2009-10-10, by Gunnar Thompson, presented to The Atlantic Conference) []


New page:
America 1000 years BM!

> 1044 years BM
Atlantesh civilization "invades" the Mediterranean Sea region, establishes the Giza Pyramids, then a comet breaks over western Europe and over the northern ocean, destroying the Atlantesh civilization and submerging areas of its homeland.
Their hierarchy was topped by the elongated heads, then their appointed kings.
Their edifices do not contain friezes, hieroglyphs or mosaics. Those edifices re-used by survivor civilizations of Naghuat and Mayapan are then given carvings, with the Mayapan priesthood adopting head binding as a form of continuation of the older priesthood of the elongated heads.

The coincidence with the Heinsohn Horizon is chronologically correct based on the visible Inca adaptation of the older megalithic edifices across the Andes.

Upholding this coincidence are the world maps produced 700 to 500 years BM in the Federated Imperial Realm showing knowledge that seems to pick up from a 1000 year tradition of cartography, that an advanced scientific civilization as Rome built before 1000 years BM remained stagnant. Instead, there was a disaster, and the Federated Imperial Realm picked up the pieces uninterrupted by the CAN's "thousand year dark age" (360/560/960AD).
Their knowledge of the nearby oceanic islands was limited, as evident to world maps attributed as being produced in the Federated Imperial Realm before ("ancient", 1st Century AD) and after the Heinsohn Horizon ("medieval", 11th Century AD), which shows a recent arrival of oceanic knowledge, as though this were not as ancient a civilization as we know it to be. A recent arrival to the European continent, or a gradual pooling of knowledge by secretive merchant networks into a central databank (the Latin Empire)?
For edification, scan pages 156 and 157 with the maps and gradual adaptation over a 100 years to include the nearby Azores.

* "Will the Real Atlantis please stand up?" (by Gene D. Matlock) page 1 [], page 2 [] [begin excerpt]:
See the Following Nahuatl (Aztec Words) Before Beginning This Article:
Atl = Water.
Atlan = In, by, alongside, under water.
Atlah= Abundant water.
Ahtlantica=A big stretch of abundant water (A Nahuatl name for the Atlantic Ocean.).
Atlantona = Resplendent Lady of Water (Another Nahuatl name for the Atlantic Ocean).
Atlantech/Atlantesh = Place under, by, in, alongside water.
Atlantes = Nahuatl name for Atlas holding up the world.
An ancient, spiral-shaped harbor with high banks or dikes lining the channels had once existed near San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, exactly as described by Plato. Robles y Gutiérrez said that the extremely fertile plains and jungles in the area are cross-crossed with the ruins of many ancient irrigation canals, as well as manmade irrigation lagoons, some with the masonry lining their banks still intact - and still potentially usable! The archeological remains in San Lorenzo supposedly belong to the Olmec culture. The Olmecs themselves were either survivors of the Atlantis disaster or latecomers to the area.


A Romanized (or Greek architecture) version of what Atlantis city looked like according to Plato. Of course, it could also look like Mexican architecture.

* []

Modern Peru [] Elongated Cranium in Mexico []. Elongated skulls facial reconstructions [] [] [] [

* "Atlantis in Mexico: The Mande Discovery of America" by Dr Clyde Winters, a book description []: Clyde Winters, PhD in this revised edition of Atlantis in Mexico gives us a history of the magnificent Olmec civilization founded by African explorers in Mexico. The Olmec civilization is recognized by many archaeologists as the “Mother Culture” of Mexico. In this book Dr. Winters discusses the rise of the first civilization in Mesoamerica. He explains how the Olmec originated in Africa, sailed to the Gulf of Mexico, built pyramids and introduced writing to the Maya. . In the latest edition of this book Dr. Winters provides a translation of the Cascajal stela, and Olmec calendrics.

* "Asteroids" (2010-06-02, []
* "Did a Comet Cause the Great Flood? The universal human myth may be the first example of disaster reporting" (2007-11-15, []

* merchandise advertisement []:
Title: Asia Vetus Nicolai Sanson Christianiss. Galliar. Regis Geographi. Recognita, Emendata, et Multis in locis Mutata.
 Date: 1750. This map was originally published by Nicholas Sanson in 1667 ( as can be seen dated within the title cartouche). It was republished by Vaugondy in 1750.
 By: Robert De Vaugondy.
 A small coastline of North America is labeled Atlantis Insula.
Full map: []

* "Hispaniola" (2010-02-11, [], with 1700s scholar positing the island is a remnant of Atlantis

* "Oc Eo" archeological site (retrieved 2016-06-20, [], with information about the Malay Peninsula being the location for Cattigara
* Map from "Maps, from Atlantis to Antilia, the West Indies, and the Island of Seven Cities" ( []

* "Early New World Maps" (2014-06-11, by Dr. Gunnar Thompson, for [], attached map []

* merchandise advertisement []:
Title: Asia Vetus Nicolai Sanson Christianiss. Galliar. Regis Geographi. Recognita, Emendata, et Multis in locis Mutata.
 Date: 1750. This map was originally published by Nicholas Sanson in 1667 ( as can be seen dated within the title cartouche). It was republished by Vaugondy in 1750.
 By: Robert De Vaugondy.
The famed mythical trading port of Cattigara, which had moved around the Asian coastline since Ptolemy, has magically found its place near Shandong province, China.
Full map: []

There were two "Black Death" epidemics that coincided with the disruption of the old Roman Empire, in 350 AD, and again at around 1350 AD. Yet, only the later epidemic showed continuing outbreaks throughout the following centuries...
* "Descendants of Black Death confirmed as source of repeated European plague outbreaks" (2016-01-15, []

* "Giant 7 – 8 Foot Skeletons Uncovered in Ecuador sent for Scientific Testing" (2015-10-08, []

* "World’s Oldest Deep-Sea Fishermen; Over 40,000 years ago, ancient Australians were using sophisticated equipment to bring in impressive hauls" (2012-04-12, []

* "Ice Age Europeans had brown eyes & dark complexion – DNA research" (2016-05-03, [] [begin excerpt]: The study concluded that the genes of Ice Age Europeans show prevailing dark complexions and brown eyes. The evidence also revealed that blue eyes appeared 14,000 years ago at most, while pale skin spread across the continent some 7,000 years ago. Both were brought in by migration from the Near East. [end excerpt]

* "The Ottoman Voyages to the Indies" ( []

* "Being rich in the Middle Ages led to an unhealthy life; In the Middle Ages only wealthy town people could afford to eat and drink from beautiful, colored glazed cups and plates. But the glazing was made of lead, which found its way into the body if you ate acidic foods. This has been revealed by chemical investigations of skeletons from cemeteries in Denmark and Germany" (2015-10-20, []

* "Tourists Flock to Medieval Chechen City of the Dead; Tour agencies in Chechnya have reported that the most popular destination for the tens of thousands of tourists who visited the republic this year was the medieval necropolis 'Tsoi-Pede' " (2015-10-29, []

* "Russia's Very First Capital You Probably Never Heard About; Founded in 753, this once prosperous trading post and multi-ethnic community is sometimes referred to as "the first capital of Russia". Welcome to Staraya Ladoga!" (2015-08-20, []

* "Roman Sword discovered off Oak Island radically suggests Ancient Mariners visited New World 1,000 years before Columbus" (2015-12-17) []
* "Historians Claim Ancient Romans Visited Canada" (2015-12-26, []
* "ANCIENT ROMANS landed in America: Staggering discovery will 'change history' ; HISTORIANS claim they have found evidence Romans arrived in North America, more than a thousand years before Christopher Columbus set foot on the continent" (2015-12-22, [] [begin excerpt]: A Roman sword, a legionnaire's whistle, Gold Carthage coins, part of a Roman shield and a Roman head sculpture were found on an island in Canada.
Lead historian Jovan Hutton Pulitzer believes the haul is firm evidence the great empire landed there first and is the "single most important discovery" ever for the Americas.
It remains unclear how ancient Romans could have made the epic journey across the Atlantic Ocean but, according to the Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS), the haul was discovered in a shipwreck off Oak Island on the south shore of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Mr Pulitzer said: "The ceremonial sword is 100 per cent confirmed as Roman.
"I began my forensic work into it using an XRF analyser - which is a leading archaeological tool for analysing metals.
"And we found all these other metals that tell you this was made from ore that came directly from the ground.
"It has the same arsenic and lead signature in it. We've been able to test this sword against another one like it and it matches." [...]
Pulitzer's team also discovered ancient burial mounds in shallow water on the island dating back to less than two centuries after Christ.
Professor James Scherz, from the University of Wisconsin, said: "These mounds are consistent with ancient European and Levant burial mounds, not native American.
"I am in agreement the underwater mounds being of a foreign ancient mariner style and not native to Nova Scotia or traditional North American.
"These mounds, in looking at the known ocean levels for the area, give a possible date of occurring between 1500BC and 180AD."
As well as the graves, the experts also uncovered carved stones on Oak Island that "possess a language from the ancient Levant".
Another clue, in his report, is the presence of an invasive species of plant which was once used by Romans.
Mr Pulitzer said: "There are also 50 words in the native M'kmaq language.
"These are ancient nautical sailing terms used by ancient mariners from Roman times - but they were not a seafaring culture.
"Another very interesting 'coincidence' is a bush on Oak Island and one on the mainland which is listed in Canada as an invasive species called Berberis Vulgaris.
"This was used by ancient mariners, including Romans, to season their food and fight scurvy.
"It grows in Oak Island and across the way in Halifax. All these things, signs and symbols add up to more than just coincidence." [end excerpt]
Photo caption: A Roman sword, a legionnaire's whistle, Gold Carthage coins and a Roman shield were found


The "Vulgar" languages, the "Paganos", these were the People, who lived outside the mercantile cities.
What, then, of the Latin Language? Was there ever a "Latin" nation? The Empire was wherever the Roman language reigned... this is established alongside the usage of the Latin script in official legal documents of Londini during the 1500s where the wealthiest and politically powerful congregated and established relations with Latin speaking cohorts across the continent and world, who all worked amidst the vulgar languages of the paganos and lower-classes...

The following article lends to the place for the "Celts" and "Paganos" within the "Pfister Thesis".
* "The invention of Capitalism: Classical Political Economy and the Secret History of Primitive Accumulation" (by Michael Perelman) (.pdf) []
* "The Invention of Capitalism: How a Self-Sufficient Peasantry was Whipped Into Industrial Wage Slaves" (by Yasha Levine, []:
“…everyone but an idiot knows that the lower classes must be kept poor, or they will never be industrious.”
—Arthur Young; 1771
Our popular economic wisdom says that capitalism equals freedom and free societies, right? Well, if you ever suspected that the logic is full of shit, then I’d recommend checking a book called The Invention of Capitalism, written by an economic historian named Michael Perelmen, who’s been exiled to Chico State, a redneck college in rural California, for his lack of freemarket friendliness. And Perelman has been putting his time in exile to damn good use, digging deep into the works and correspondence of Adam Smith and his contemporaries to write a history of the creation of capitalism that goes beyond superficial The Wealth of Nations fairy tale and straight to the source, allowing you to read the early capitalists, economists, philosophers, clergymen and statesmen in their own words. And it ain’t pretty.
One thing that the historical record makes obviously clear is that Adam Smith and his laissez-faire buddies were a bunch of closet-case statists, who needed brutal government policies to whip the English peasantry into a good capitalistic workforce willing to accept wage slavery.
Francis Hutcheson, from whom Adam Smith learned all about the virtue of natural liberty, wrote: ”it is the one great design of civil laws to strengthen by political sanctions the several laws of nature. … The populace needs to be taught, and engaged by laws, into the best methods of managing their own affairs and exercising mechanic art.”
Yep, despite what you might have learned, the transition to a capitalistic society did not happen naturally or smoothly. See, English peasants didn’t want to give up their rural communal lifestyle, leave their land and go work for below-subsistence wages in shitty, dangerous factories being set up by a new, rich class of landowning capitalists. And for good reason, too. Using Adam Smith’s own estimates of factory wages being paid at the time in Scotland, a factory-peasant would have to toil for more than three days to buy a pair of commercially produced shoes. Or they could make their own traditional brogues using their own leather in a matter of hours, and spend the rest of the time getting wasted on ale. It’s really not much of a choice, is it?
But in order for capitalism to work, capitalists needed a pool of cheap, surplus labor. So what to do? Call in the National Guard!
Faced with a peasantry that didn’t feel like playing the role of slave, philosophers, economists, politicians, moralists and leading business figures began advocating for government action. Over time, they enacted a series of laws and measures designed to push peasants out of the old and into the new by destroying their traditional means of self-support.
“The brutal acts associated with the process of stripping the majority of the people of the means of producing for themselves might seem far removed from the laissez-faire reputation of classical political economy,” writes Perelman. “In reality, the dispossession of the majority of small-scale producers and the construction of laissez-faire are closely connected, so much so that Marx, or at least his translators, labeled this expropriation of the masses as ‘‘primitive accumulation.’’
Perelman outlines the many different policies through which peasants were forced off the land—from the enactment of so-called Game Laws that prohibited peasants from hunting, to the destruction of the peasant productivity by fencing the commons into smaller lots—but by far the most interesting parts of the book are where you get to read Adam Smith’s proto-capitalist colleagues complaining and whining about how peasants are too independent and comfortable to be properly exploited, and trying to figure out how to force them to accept a life of wage slavery.
This pamphlet from the time captures the general attitude towards successful, self-sufficient peasant farmers: "The possession of a cow or two, with a hog, and a few geese, naturally exalts the peasant. . . . In sauntering after his cattle, he acquires a habit of indolence. Quarter, half, and occasionally whole days, are imperceptibly lost. Day labour becomes disgusting; the aversion in- creases by indulgence. And at length the sale of a half-fed calf, or hog, furnishes the means of adding intemperance to idleness."
While another pamphleteer wrote: "Nor can I conceive a greater curse upon a body of people, than to be thrown upon a spot of land, where the productions for subsistence and food were, in great measure, spontaneous, and the climate required or admitted little care for raiment or covering."
John Bellers, a Quaker “philanthropist” and economic thinker saw independent peasants as a hindrance to his plan of forcing poor people into prison-factories, where they would live, work and produce a profit of 45% for aristocratic owners:
“Our Forests and great Commons (make the Poor that are upon them too much like the Indians) being a hindrance to Industry, and are Nurseries of Idleness and Insolence.”
Daniel Defoe, the novelist and trader, noted that in the Scottish Highlands “people were extremely well furnished with provisions. … venison exceedingly plentiful, and at all seasons, young or old, which they kill with their guns whenever they find it.’’
To Thomas Pennant, a botanist, this self-sufficiency was ruining a perfectly good peasant population:
“The manners of the native Highlanders may be expressed in these words: indolent to a high degree, unless roused to war, or any animating amusement.”
If having a full belly and productive land was the problem, then the solution to whipping these lazy bums into shape was obvious: kick ‘em off the land and let em starve.
Arthur Young, a popular writer and economic thinker respected by John Stuart Mill, wrote in 1771: “everyone but an idiot knows that the lower classes must be kept poor, or they will never be industrious.” Sir William Temple, a politician and Jonathan Swift’s boss, agreed, and suggested that food be taxed as much as possible to prevent the working class from a life of “sloth and debauchery.”
Temple also advocated putting four-year-old kids to work in the factories, writing ‘‘for by these means, we hope that the rising generation will be so habituated to constant employment that it would at length prove agreeable and entertaining to them.’’ Some thought that four was already too old. According to Perelmen, “John Locke, often seen as a philosopher of liberty, called for the commencement of work at the ripe age of three.” Child labor also excited Defoe, who was joyed at the prospect that “children after four or five years of age…could every one earn their own bread.’’ But that’s getting off topic…
Even David Hume, that great humanist, hailed poverty and hunger as positive experiences for the lower classes, and even blamed the “poverty” of France on its good weather and fertile soil:
“‘Tis always observed, in years of scarcity, if it be not extreme, that the poor labour more, and really live better.”
Reverend Joseph Townsend believed that restricting food was the way to go:
“[Direct] legal constraint [to labor] . . . is attended with too much trouble, violence, and noise, . . . whereas hunger is not only a peaceable, silent, unremitted pressure, but as the most natural motive to industry, it calls forth the most powerful exertions. . . . Hunger will tame the fiercest animals, it will teach decency and civility, obedience and subjugation to the most brutish, the most obstinate, and the most perverse.”
Patrick Colquhoun, a merchant who set up England’s first private “preventative police“ force to prevent dock workers from supplementing their meager wages with stolen goods, provided what may be the most lucid explanation of how hunger and poverty correlate to productivity and wealth creation:
"Poverty is that state and condition in society where the individual has no surplus labour in store, or, in other words, no property or means of subsistence but what is derived from the constant exercise of industry in the various occupations of life. Poverty is therefore a most necessary and indispensable ingredient in society, without which nations and communities could not exist in a state of civilization. It is the lot of man. It is the source of wealth, since without poverty, there could be no labour; there could be no riches, no refinement, no comfort, and no benefit to those who may be possessed of wealth."
Colquhoun’s summary is so on the money, it has to be repeated. Because what was true for English peasants is still just as true for us:
“Poverty is therefore a most necessary and indispensable ingredient in society…It is the source of wealth, since without poverty, there could be no labour; there could be no riches, no refinement, no comfort, and no benefit to those who may be possessed of wealth.”
* "Medieval peasants got a lot more vacation time than you: economist" (2013-09-04, []

Here are the "Celts" of the 1700s, []...
“Our Forests and great Commons (make the Poor that are upon them too much like the Indians) being a hindrance to Industry, and are Nurseries of Idleness and Insolence.”
This pamphlet from the time captures the general attitude towards successful, self-sufficient peasant farmers: "The possession of a cow or two, with a hog, and a few geese, naturally exalts the peasant. . . . In sauntering after his cattle, he acquires a habit of indolence. Quarter, half, and occasionally whole days, are imperceptibly lost. Day labour becomes disgusting; the aversion in- creases by indulgence. And at length the sale of a half-fed calf, or hog, furnishes the means of adding intemperance to idleness."
While another pamphleteer wrote: "Nor can I conceive a greater curse upon a body of people, than to be thrown upon a spot of land, where the productions for subsistence and food were, in great measure, spontaneous, and the climate required or admitted little care for raiment or covering." [end excerpt]

* "Romania turns its back on dark past of Roma slavery" (2016-03-02, by with AFP Newswire) [] [begin excerpt]: For generations, they were owned by the rich and powerful, who bought and sold them as chattel.
The owners would sometimes force them to wear collars fitted with iron spikes on the inside, to prevent them from lying down to rest when they were supposed to work.
The women would be sexually abused. Couples would be forcibly separated. Their children would be taken away from them and turned into slaves too.
Yet this tale of subjugation comes not from the grimmest era of America’s Deep South but from continental Europe: Romania.
And it is a story that remains largely untold today, even though hundreds of thousands of descendants of those who were enslaved — the Roma —  struggle with the stigma it left.
“The five centuries of slavery mark a tragic period in the history of Romania… a period in which the Roma were deprived of the status of human beings,” Delia Grigore, a specialist in ethnology and herself a Roma activist told AFP.
“The slavery of the Roma is a lost page of history,” said Alina Serban, a young Roma actress and playwright who has written about the Roma identity.
The Roma are believed to have left an ancestral home in northern India around 1,500 years ago and arrived in mediaeval Europe about six centuries later.
The dark-skinned nomadic folk, called Romani, became known as “Tzigans” — from the Greek word Athinganoi, which became derived, often pejoratively, into “Gitans” in French, “Gitanos” in Spanish and “Gypsy” in English.
A document dated 1385 attests that Prince Dan, monarch of the Romanian province of Wallachia, “made a gift of 40 Atzigan households to the monastery of Tismana”.
Tzigan = slave -
“The tzigans had the status of slaves across the region, lasting from the Byzantine empire to the Ottoman empire,” said Roma historian Viorel Achim.
“Bit by bit, the term ‘tzigan’ became synonymous with a ‘slave'” of any type, he noted.
In Wallachia and another province, Moldavia, slavery was enshrined in law and social practice.
Orthodox Christian monasteries, like landowners called boyars and princes, had the right to slave ownership. Wallachia’s penal code declared: “All tzigans are born slaves.”
There were still a quarter of a million slaves right up to the middle of the 19th century when, belatedly, the wind of tolerance and humanitarian values arrived from Western Europe.
In 1848, Wallachia issued a proclamation saying: “The Romanian people frees itself from the shame of owning slaves and declare the Tzigans to be free.”
It took another eight years, until February 20 1856, before words were transcribed into a legal text, but the terrible social and psychological legacy of slavery has endured for far longer.
Suddenly freed overnight, many Roma — like their counterparts in the southern US plantations — had no means to start up a new life. They had no home, no money and for generations their existence had been determined by a master.
Many remained in a form of semi-slavery under their previous owner or were expelled from their estate and forced to eke out a life on the outskirts of villages. [end excerpt]

* "The Birth of Territory" book review []
* "A Genealogy of Sovereignty" book outline []

"Ape Men" 
* Information [] [] [] []
* Roman contact with the "Ape Men" []

* De Loy's Ape (Amer-Anthropoides Loysi)
- original photograph (1929, George Montandon) [], cropped version commonly seen []
- "Ameranthropoides loysi" research article, part 1 [], part 2 "Photo Demonstration" []

* Bassou (Azzo) photos [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [], further info []

* " 'The Paleolithic Issue in Need of Further Study!' " (2016-02-20, [] [begin excerpt]: During Japanese rule, servile scholars, taking advantage of the fact that no Paleolithic artifacts had yet been discovered, contended that the Old Stone Age had not existed in Korea and it had not had any resident inhabitants in that age. This was a prefabricated frame-up to prove the “inferiority” of the Korean nation. It cannot be asserted that the Old Stone Age did not exist in Korea just because no relevant relics had been discovered. Paleolithic relics have been unearthed in large quantities in different parts of East Asia, many of which are geographically close to where our ancestors lived. These relics are proof positive that mankind lived in the regions adjacent to Korea during the Old Stone Age. That’s why we should approach the issue of Korea’s Old Stone Age from a standpoint that mankind lived in our country from olden times though Paleolithic relics have not been unearthed until now. … [end excerpt]
* "Korean silk dates back to neolithic age" (2016-02-17, []: Silk is a light, elegant and soft cloth made of natural fibre.
Korean silk has been well known to the world since olden times.
Already back at the end of the primitive age and during the ancient times quality silk had been woven in a large quantity along with hemp and ramie cloth.
Mulberry leaves liked by silkworm were painted at the bottom of many pieces of pottery unearthed in dwelling sites dating back to the Neolithic and Bronze ages, including the Namgyong Site in Pyongyang. Pieces of pottery painted with and sculptures depicting silkworm were also discovered in the relics of the Neolithic Age including the site in Jithap-ri of Pongsan.
These discoveries bear testimony to the fact that Korea has a long history of silkworm raising and began to produce silk in the Neolithic Age.
There were various silks in Korea in the period of ancient times including kyompho, plain fabric woven with two-ply threads, and those in the Koguryo period included ryongsik with patterns, kum woven by mixing gold threads, and many other luxury silks.
The silk weaving techniques of Korea were spread to Japan in the period of the Three Kingdoms.
A Japanese history book says Korean technicians crossed the sea to Japan to teach the techniques of weaving silk between the 4-5th and 7th centuries and silk production in Japan began in the period.
Silk production techniques saw further development and its kinds increased in the period of Koryo between 918 and 1392. Quality also improved, so its silk was exported far to the Middle and Near East and became widely known to the world as “Koryo silk”.
In the period of the feudal Joson dynasty between 1392 and 1910 silk production bases were set up in good places and mulberry trees were widely planted.
Renowned for silk production are Nyongbyon in North Phyongan Province, Songchon in South Phyongan Province, Kumya, Jongphyong, Kowon, Pukchong and Tanchon in South Hamgyong Province, Kilju and Myongchon in North Hamgyong Province, Cholwon in Kangwon Province and Suan in North Hwanghae Province.

* "In Search of Origin of Salt Production" (2016-02-13, []: About 20 years ago one student asked a question in a history lesson. “Sir, did Koguryo and Koryo (918–1392) that were military and economic powers depend on import from neighbouring countries for salt?” The teacher who was asked at that time was Choe Sung Il at Wonup Senior Middle School, Onchon County, Nampho City. He was at a loss what to say.
Onchon County in Nampho City is one of the biggest salt production bases in Korea. Moreover, the Wonup area bears a large share in salt production. In the early 20th century the Japanese imperialists occupied Korea militarily. In the Wonup area they destroyed all the historical relics and confiscated and incinerated all history books on salt to stamp out the history of salt production in Korea. Then, they made propaganda that salt production was started by Japan in Korea.
Since then a lot of people had a wrong idea that their country owed salt production to Japan. The student mentioned above was one of them. Now Choe fell into thought: Everybody knows that our ancestors prepared kimchi and soy and bean paste by using salt from olden times; Yet I can’t answer my students’ question because of shortage of historical knowledge about salt.
Choe decided to give an answer to the question by making an investigation at any cost. He spent many years collecting legends and folk tales from the natives in Onchon County, but no scientific information. He then turned to classic books and studied not only Korean history but also foreign historical documents. As a result, he could make sure that the Wonup area in Onchon County was a long-standing salt producer. A particular piece of proof was a Japanese lecture summary on history of salt titled “Road of Salt” (On Features of Ancient Salt Making). It wrote that salt manufacture found its way from Korea to Japan. Moreover, in a history book “Songhosaesol” he could read that Tangun was the best in the study of salt in Ancient Joson. There were also materials that noted lots of salt was manufactured in Korea and exported to neighbouring countries.
Choe made up his mind to verify his predictions by unearthing historical relics on the spot, although he was neither an archaeologist nor a linguist. He resolutely started unearthing, thinking if he delayed his work he couldn’t teach his students the right history. He studied himself archaeology, geology and salt-manufacturing engineering and finally discovered 50 sites believed to have been places of salt manufacture in several square kilometres of the Wonup area. Later, in close connection with teachers and researchers of the history faculty, Kim Il Sung University, he unearthed a site of salt manufacture which dates back to the age of Koguryo (277 BC–AD 668) in the Wonup Workers’ District area. At the same time he found over 80 rocks with constellation inscriptions, 10 sites of ancient human shelters, 50 pieces of the Neolithic leftovers, over 100 dolmens and three rocks with primitive letters.
Choe says, “In the course of unearthing salt production sites of Koguryo we have discovered many relics dating back to ancient times. So we guess that many people gathered here to produce salt from ancient times. And considering many constellation-inscribed rocks we think our ancestors produced salt based on meteorological observation.”
The researchers of Kim Il Sung University confirmed one of the places with relics was a site of production of salt from the sea water, which belonged to the period of Koguryo.
Later, Choe made a new teaching material on the history of salt production in Korea. As there are unearthed many relics dating back to primitive and ancient times in the Wonup area, he is convinced that relics of salt production of relevant times will show up. He is directing effort to their discovery.


* Benedictine Abbess Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) created her own language and alphabet, the Lingua Ignota []

* Why parchment? The scarcity of permanent paper []

As usual, an "ancient Roman" technique remains unchanged and appears hundreds of years out of time.
* "Ancient scrolls roll back first use of metallic inks by centuries" (2016-03-24, []
* "Ancient scrolls sealed shut by Vesuvius reveal some of their secrets; Herculaneum scrolls provide an archaeological detective story" (2016-03-30, []

Just like during "Medieval Rome", the doctors of "Ancient Rome" relied on the same dogmatic Medical practices already hundreds of years old according to the following article, like bloodletting and burning.
* "The Ancient Romans That Healed Through Pleasure; Many physicians of the Classical era employed brutal practices including bloodletting and burning, but some treated patient pain with baths, naps, and wine" (2016-03-01, []

* "Ancient Non-Stick Pan Factory Found in Italy" (2016-03-28, []

* "Ancient Greeks Used Portable Grills at Their Picnics" (2014-01-09, []

* "Ancient Roman Puzzle Gets New Piece" (2016-03-04, []

* "The SECOND battle of Thermopylae: Fragments reveal Roman fight against invading Goths in same pass Spartans fought '300' battle; Found in pieces of Greek text that lay undiscovered in Austrian museum; It describes how Goths were advancing on the Roman Empire in 250 AD; Goths were an East Germanic people seen by Romans as barbarians; The Greeks were able to defeat Goths at the narrow pass of Thermopylae" (2016-03-21, [] [begin excerpt]: Researchers used spectral imaging to enhance the fragments discovered in the Austrian National Library, making it possible to read the pieces which were were copied in the 11th century A.D. and from a text written in the third-century A.D. by an Athens writer named Dexippus. [end excerpt]

* Tironian script [], to short-hand Latin diction

* The Voynich-New Atlantis Theory [] [] []
* "Voynich Manuscript Timeline" []

* "A Strange Coincidence" (2010-06-23, [] [begin excerpt]: There are no contemporary references to the Voynich Manuscript that we know of, only a few 17th century letters which were written long after it was created. The first which appeared is the famous Marci Letter of 1665, which Wilfrid Voynich found attached, or with, the manuscript to begin with. But it is not the only, or earliest, reference.  The first possible mention is from 1637. A complete list of all “Voynich letters”, with translations, can be found on Philip Neal’s pages at Voynich central []. But the letter which is the topic of this post is the 1666 letter from Godefirdus Aloysius Kinner to Kircher []. It includes mention of the following subjects:
1) The Voynich and it’s mystery, and a hope for it’s translation
2) The two Bacons
3) The founding of the Royal Society
4) The New Atlantis
Mr. Neal notes, “‘English Society’ (Anglica Societate). The Royal Society, founded by Charles II of England in 1660. This paragraph is a discussion of an important issue at that time, the need to break with the wisdom of the ancient world and pursue new knowledge by means of experimental science. Kinner, clearly, is on the side of experiment, but in his day its value was not self-evident and needed to be argued for. Barschius, by contrast, seriously believed that major medical discoveries would more likely result from the decipherment of an old manuscript than from first hand observation.”
[end excerpt]

* "Shakespeare Re-invented; A journey through 400 years of fantasy" (by Keith Browning,
- Chapters 1 through 4 []
- Chapters 5 through 7 []
- Chapters 8 through 13 []
- Chapters 14 through the Epilogue []


* Map of Paris (1618) []


Hungary / Magyar [] []

Suleiman the Magnificent was a major patron of the Protestant Reformation. []

* "Researchers Discover Ancient Observations Of A 1006 AD Supernova" (2016-04-26, []


Were the mysterious "vikings" those people of the lands not dominated by the Roman Fedora of the realm? The Celts / Vikings versus the western Holy Roman Empire and it Federation of Kings at Norway, Angle's Land (England), Dane's Land (Denmark). Alongside the eastern realms of the metropolitan at Kiev and Muscovy with adherent kings... alongside their version of "wild" Celts.
* "Great Danes: Viking gold jewelry stash found by amateur archaeologists" (2016-06-17, []

* "Sumerian is Tamil" (In English) Part 1 [], Part 2 [], Part 3 [], Part 4 []
* "Tamil scholar reads Sumerian text" []
Dr K Loganathan explains why Sumerian language is not an 'language isolate' but archaic Tamil. He uses what he calls 'Dravidian Evolutional Linguistics' which is based on Tolkapiyam, Pavanar's 'Veer Linguistics' and Aurobindo's Evolutionary Linguistics. Dr Loganathan's research and finding is a breakthrough. Sumerian is not dead but lives as Tamil today, with similar culture, language and religion.
Sumerian language has been classified as a language isolate. Dr Loganathan's almost half a decade of research proves that Sumerian language is an archaic form of Tamil. The methodology used is 'Tamil Evolutionary Linguistics' which is far more scientific than the currently used 'Constructive Linguistics'.

* "Abkhazia" ( [] [begin excerpt]: The classical christian symbols of the square cross and the latin cross were also used in Abkhazia. A square cross of Georgian fashion is known from the region from the 11th century. With it is a tamgha, or Royal cypher of the style common in the Kumenian empire of the time.
Image caption: Square cross and tamgha of King George II (1072-’89) (National Museum Abchazia, Sukhum)

In the 14th century Book of Knowledge is written (Book of the Knowledge of all the kingdoms, lands, and lordships that are in the world. (ca 1350) Works issued by the Hakluyt Society. 2nd series N° XXIX. 1912. P. 57. fig 84):
“I departed from the Sea of Letana and proceeded along the shores of the eastern side of the Mare Mayor for a very long distance, passing by Aruasaxia, and Pesonta in the empire of Uxleto, and arrived in the kingdom of Sant Estropoli which is inhabited by Comanes Christians. Here there are many people who have Jewish descent, but all perform the works of Christians in the sacrifices, more after the Greek than the Latin church. The King has for his flag - gules a hand argent.”
[end excerpt]

* "Irish DNA has Middle Eastern and Russian roots, gene study shows" (2015-12-29, []

* "Christian Church Origins in Britain" with primary references (by Laurence Gardner) (.pdf) []

* "British histriography, 500 - 1200", historical information compiled by Scheherazade at the Little Bohemia on the Hinkson []:
- De Excidio Brittaniae et Conquestu (full translation of Books I & II) [] by Gildas, sixth century indignant Welsh monk extraordinaire.  Gildas's little tirade contains the first mention of an event which would later become associated with someone named Arthur, the Battle of Badon Hill.
- Historia Brittonum (full translated text) [] by Nennius, eighth century semi-literate Welsh monk extraordinaire.  Nennius's weird compilation of British history was the first to mention Arthur by name, and to flesh out his "history" a bit.
- Annales Cambriae (full translated text) []. Also known as the Annals of Wales, the earliest surviving version of this chronology (447-954 C.E.) is attached to the famous Harleian manuscript of the Historia Brittonum.
- The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle  (excerpted translation: 1 - 650 C.E.) []. This excerpt is, in a manner of speaking, the retrospective view from the other side before, during and after the age of Arthur. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was first compiled in the late ninth century. Arthur is not named in the Chronicle.
- Chronicle of the Kings of England  (translated excerpts, Books I & III) [] by William of Malmesbury, late 12th century historian. Included is William's history of the years from 447-670 C.E. (including an interesting description of the pyramids of Glastonbury) in which "warlike Arthur" is mentioned, and also a snippet from Book III on the sepulcher of Arthur.
- Geoffrey of Monmouth []. Geoffrey was one of the most creative "historians" ever to grace the planet. It was he who was responsible for setting the romantic Arthurian cycle in motion, which is also the point at which all that stuff becomes worthless to historians.
- Historical Arthur []. A summary of ancient sources for and twentieth century scholarship on the question of Arthur's identity and existence.
- Dark Rooms and Dry Straw []. A historiographical romp through the millenium spanning the years from 200 to 1200. See -- ! Giants living in Britain! See -- ! The amazing pinhole-eyed Huns, the spawn of Scythian witches! See -- ! The Antichrist roaming the Holy Roman Empire with a vanguard of naked acrobats! Yep, they sure don't write history like they used to.

* "The Spanish Plan to Conquer China" (by Samuel Hawley) [] [begin excerpt]: As a sixteenth century Christian, Captain de Artieda likely shared de Rada’s concern for the souls of the Chinese. As an inheritor of Spain’s New World conquistador tradition, Chinese wealth also would have been very much on his mind. It was a wealth the likes of which the Spanish had never encountered before. To begin with, the land was so immense that it tended to boggle the mind. One report enthused that just “one of its hundred divisions … is as big as half the world itself.”[7]
7. Martin Enriquez, Viceroy of New Spain, to Philip II, Dec. 5, 1573, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, 211.

* "Evidence of Pre-Columbus Trade Found in Alaska House" (2015-04-16, []
* "In Photos: East Asian Trade with New World" (2015-04-16, []:
Archaeologists have discovered bronze and other artifacts dating back some 1,000 years and suggesting trade between East Asia and the New World before the exploits of Christopher Columbus. Check out these photos of the excavation site and artifacts from the dig.
Archaeologists working at the Rising Whale site at Cape Espenberg, Alaska, have discovered several artifacts that were imported from East Asia. They were found while excavating a house that dates back about 1,000 years. The house is pictured here.

Bronze and obsidian -
The imported artifacts include two made of bronze. Bronze working hadn’t been developed at this time in Alaska and researchers believe they would have been manufactured in China, Korea or Yakutia (a region in Russia). Additionally researchers found the remains of obsidian artifacts, the obsidian has a chemical signature that indicates it is from the Anadyr River valley in Russia.

Bronze buckle -
One of the bronze artifacts is pictured here. It may have originally been used as a buckle or fastener although its use when it reached Alaska may have been different. It has a piece of leather on it that radiocarbon dates to around AD 600 although more tests will be done in the future. Additionally a second bronze artifact was found that may have been used as a whistle.
View uncropped photo here [].

New World trade -
This map shows possible trade routes that archaeological and historical evidence, gathered over the past 100 years, have teased out. The two recently discovered bronze artifacts were found at the Rising Whale site, at Cape Espenberg Alaska. Researchers believe they were originally made in Korea, Manchuria (in China) or in Yakutia. Additionally obsidian found at the Rising Whale site has a chemical signature which indicates that it is from the Anadyr River valley in Russia.
View uncropped map here [].

In 1913 Smithsonian anthropologist Berthold Laufer published a paper analyzing texts and artifacts from China. He found that the Chinese had a great interest in Walrus and Narwhal Ivory and got it from people who lived to the northeast of China. Walrus is found in abundance in the Bering Strait area and may have come from there.
In the 1930’s Smithsonian archaeology Henry Collins conducted excavations at St. Lawrence Island, off the west coast of Alaska. He found armor made of ivory, bone and sometimes iron. He found that it had been introduced from East Asia around 1,000 years ago. He noted that it is similar to armor developed in Manchuria, Japan and eastern Mongolia. He believed that the use of the armor spread north from those areas eventually reaching Alaska.

Walrus ivory -
Walrus can be found in abundance in the Bering Strait area. Texts and artifacts indicate that the Chinese had a great interest in it. Some of the ivory was traded further west to countries in west Asia.

Body armor -
At sites in Alaska, although not at Rising Whale, remains of body armor has been found. Some of this armor, particularly those made of plates, may have been inspired by armor that was being developed in East Asia. This image shows a piece of body armor that’s now in the Glenbow Museum in Calgary, Canada.

[end article]

* "Did Marco Polo "Discover" America? Maps attributed to the 13th-century traveler sketch what looks like the coast of Alaska" (2014-10, by Ariel Sabar, []
For a guy who claimed to spend 17 years in China as a confidant of Kublai Khan, Marco Polo left a surprisingly skimpy paper trail. No Asian sources mention the footloose Italian. The only record of his 13th-century odyssey through the Far East is the hot air of his own Travels, which was actually an “as told to” penned by a writer of romances. But a set of 14 parchments, now collected and exhaustively studied for the first time, give us a raft of new stories about Polo’s journeys and something notably missing from his own account: maps.
If genuine, the maps would show that Polo recorded the shape of the Alaskan coast—and the strait separating it from Asia—four centuries before Vitus Bering, the Danish explorer long considered the first European to do so. Perhaps more important, they suggest Polo was aware of the New World two centuries before Columbus.
“It would mean that an Italian got knowledge of the west coast of North America or he heard about it from Arabs or Chinese,” says Benjamin B. Olshin, a historian of cartography whose book, The Mysteries of the Marco Polo Maps, is out in November from the University of Chicago Press. “There’s nothing else that matches that, if that’s true.”
But as Olshin is first to admit, the authenticity of the ten maps and four texts is hardly settled. The ink remains untested, and a radiocarbon study of the parchment of one key map—the only one subjected to such analysis—dates the sheepskin vellum to the 15th or 16th century, a sign the map is at best a copy. Another quandary is that Polo himself wrote nothing of personal maps or of lands beyond Asia, though he did once boast: “I did not tell half of what I saw.”
The parchments came to America in the steamer trunks of an enigmatic Italian immigrant named Marcian Rossi. Rossi landed on Ellis Island as a teenager in 1887 and later told a historian that the documents were passed down through patrician ancestors from an admiral to whom Polo had entrusted them. The mustachioed, bow-tie-fancying Rossi was a father of six who worked as a tailor in San Jose, California. He was also a charming, cigar-puffing raconteur, who despite little schooling wrote a sci-fi thriller, A Trip to Mars.
Might Rossi have conjured a Polo fantasy, too? “He certainly was enough of a character,” says his great-grandson, Jeffrey Pendergraft, a Houston energy executive who is custodian of the family papers. But neither Pendergraft nor cartographic experts suspect Rossi of forging the maps. “The incredible amount of knowledge in them about a whole variety of subjects—I would be very skeptical that my great-grandfather possessed,” Pendergraft says.
When Rossi donated the palimpsest “Map with Ship” to the Library of Congress in the 1930s, even the FBI was stumped. The agency’s analysis, requested by the library and signed by J. Edgar Hoover, was mum on the question of authenticity.
One reason the parchments have languished since then is their idiosyncrasy. They tell of people and places absent not just from Polo’s narrative but from known history. And they’re an awkward fit for the era’s known map styles—Portolan sailing charts, the grids and projections of Ptolemy, and the medieval schematics known as mappae mundi.
The parchments bear inscriptions, some cryptic, in Italian, Latin, Arabic and Chinese. Olshin, a professor at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, who spent more than 13 years researching and writing his new book, is the first scholar to fully decode and translate the maps and to trace Rossi’s ancestry, with some success, back to Polo’s Venice. One of Olshin’s most tantalizing finds are allusions to “Fusang,” an obscure fifth-century Chinese name for a “land across the ocean” that some scholars now contend was America.
History says little about Polo’s three daughters. (He had no sons.) But Fantina, Bellela and Moreta have star turns here, signing their names to some of the parchments and claiming to have drawn them from their father’s “letters,” apparently after his death. Bellela writes of hitherto untold encounters with a Syrian navigator, a band of lance-toting women in ermine pelts and people on a peninsula “twice as far from China” who wear sealskin, live on fish and make their houses “under the earth.”
Travels made Polo an instant celebrity after his return to Venice, both for his descriptions of faraway lands and for what his countrymen suspected was wild fabrication. His daughters may have plunged back into their father’s notes in hopes of securing his reputation, surmises Stanley Chojnacki, a University of North Carolina expert on gender relations in 14th-century Venice, and “to claim by reason of defending him a certain measure of respectability and status and importance themselves.”
"Map with Ship" has the informality of a "napkin sketch on vellum," says map expert John Hessler, suggesting its maker was not a trained cartographer.
(Library of Congress, Geography & Map Division) []

* "The incredible map that shows Marco Polo may have discovered America in the the 13th century - 200 years before Christopher Columbus; The map was reportedly drawn up by Marco Polo after he 'sailed across the Bering Straight' in the 1200s; Comes from a trove of documents that are claimed to have been compiled by the Italian explorer's daughter; Polo describes people who wore seal skins, ate only fish and lived in homes 'under the earth' ; Some claim he made it as far down the coast as modern day Seattle; Authenticity has yet to be determined" (2014-09-25, []
* "The Mysteries of the Marco Polo Maps" []
* caption from []: Marco Polo's Book of Travels mentions a voyage east of Siberia for "forty days." This expedition to Alaska and the West Coast is documented in this "Map-with-Ship" that was given to the Library of Congress in the 1930s by the Marcian Rossi Family. Gunnar Thompson has argued in support of the authenticity of this map before the Society for the History of Discoveries; and he has offered to pay for a radiocarbon test of the ancient vellum or sheepskin.

High Antiquity Roman mapmakers have knowledge of the circumference of the world.
Then the "Heinsohn Horizon", followed by a few hundred years...
Mapmakers are making globes, while dressed like High Antiquity Romans would.
* "Heraclitus and Democritus (Eraclito e Democrito)" (1477, by Bramante Donato)


* Maps []
* []: The legend of the flat earth evidently was a prefabricated legend only for suckers. Even Bramante, the great Renaissance painter and architect, as well as a geographer, Ptolemy knew that they proposed a Pacific Ocean enclosed by land was a deception. Text makes this famous work of 1477, with Heraclitus and Democritus. On the world map a Pacific ocean is clearly visible that extends eastward and the other part of the globe. Contrary to many Ptolemies of time that made the ocean a closed sea. Everybody knew, as he wants to believe that Columbus was mistaken for a chance finding America. Jokes that no longer hold. Because all that was East was part of the three or the four Indies, which not coincidentally were represented in globes T, as doubles by extension compared to Europe and Africa. So the "New World" and all that he would be in the southern hemisphere were always Indies. As rightly at first were dividing that extension calls the world into Western and Eastern Indies Indies.

* "FROM AMERICA TO AUSTRALIA IN THE PAINTINGS OF MYSTERIOUS TEGLIO" []: A map painted in a palace of Teglio, Valtellina, full of riddles and unknown to scholars.  We have mapped territories "impossible" for that time. The "Terra Australis" was touched by a lot before the official Portuguese discovery? (read more about the map at the link)

* "IN THE WAKE OF PIRI REIS AND The name Veragua (PANAMA)" []: It is well known that the journeys of Columbus after 1492 did not allow all '' Admiral of the Ocean Sea "to map much of the New World. (Read more about the map at the link)

* "A TOLOMEO CONFUSED WITH ALL AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA" []. A map where there are the two Americas and Australia at a time when the American continent
had not been completely mapped and Australian land had not yet been discovered. Read more about the map at the link.


Enclosed Indian Ocean (
* "This according to the tradition of the World Tolomeo" []: We do not own any of Ptolemy card. This beautiful, reproduced here, was imprinted on wood in Ulm in 1482 by Johannes de Armsshein, whose name is listed in the top margin. Conceived as a ball (!) The earth reproduces the three continents that corresponded all'ecumene that would be known from antiquity, according to tradition: Europe, Asia and Africa. With Indico closed sea from the mainland like a lake. The winds are represented by heads blond hair blowing in the earth.



Anglo-Saxon 10th century world map []
Anglo Saxon Map 1025-1050 C.E. []

[]: Dering Roll, c. 1270-1280. The Dering Roll is the oldest English roll of arms surviving in its original form. It was made between 1270 and 1280 and contains the coat of arms of 324 knights, starting with two illegitimate children of King John.

* "Geoffrey of Monmouth, and the History of the Kings of Britain" (1996 by Sheila Brynjulfson, via [] [begin excerpt]: In 1136, seventy years after the Norman Conquest of England, a Welsh cleric named Geoffrey of Monmouth completed a work in Latin which he titled Historia Regum Britanniae, or History of the Kings of Britain. Geoffrey was apparently a canon at the secular college of St. George's until the institution's demise in 1149. Two years later he was elected Bishop of St. Asaph, which is now called Flintshire, and he died four year later. Beyond these facts, little is known about him, save what can be gleaned from his History. He was but one of many British historians to put pen to paper in the twelfth century, but none of the others ever attained the notoriety which Geoffrey achieved. The arrival of the new Norman overlords spurred the frantic writing of history as the Church scrambled to reorient itself to this new political reality.[1] As we shall soon see, Geoffrey was particularly sensitive to this need, and he possessed the chutzpa necessary to deliver precisely the history for which Britain was crying out.
The modern historian must content herself with the very few manuscripts of ancient Britain which had survived. Several Roman accounts of the conquest of Britain exist, but from the period between the fifth and twelfth centuries, very few manuscripts of any kind remain. Chief among these are the De Excidio Brittaniae et Conquestu (circa 542) of Gildas, the Venerable Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum (circa 730), and an odd manuscript called Historia Brittonum, compiled by a monk named Nennius in 810. Gildas, Bede, and Nennius combine into an extremely skeletal outline of the period in question. Gildas was not particularly concerned with writing history; his goal was to denounce the immorality of the tyrants of his day. He gives only the sordid historical details necessary to support his righteous tirade. Bede, on the other hand, was much more historical, but he was foremost a pious man of God. Most of his history is ecclesiastical, focusing on the saints and their activities in Britain. His account of earliest Britain agrees with that of the Romans, and his information on the interim period between Roman and Saxon rule he borrows from Gildas. And since he was of Saxon descent, the rest of Bede's history has a decidedly Anglo-Saxon emphasis. About eighty years later, Nennius's history appears. Nennius contains some new information not found in either Gildas or Bede, but his collection is, by his own admission, rather artlessly thrown together.[2] And after Nennius, no other British historical manuscripts survive until the twelfth century appearance of Geoffrey and several other historians from among his countrymen.
Geoffrey draws from Gildas, Nennius, and Bede in his History, and he admits as much throughout the book. But he claims to have an advantage which neither the historians of yore nor his contemporary rivals have: possession of "a certain very ancient book written in the British language." That very ancient book, Geoffrey assures his reader, was "attractively composed to form a consecutive and orderly narrative" which "set out all the deeds of these men, from Brutus, the first King of the Britons, down to Cadwallader, the son of Cadwallo." The book was lent to him by his friend Walter, the Archbishop of Oxford, who was also considered to be learned in the field of history. It was at Walter's request, Geoffrey tells us in the dedication of his History, that he endeavored to translate the book from "the British language" (most historians understand this to mean Welsh) into Latin.[3]
Equipped with Archbishop Walter's book, Geoffrey had in his hands a complete and continuous history of the island--or so he said. That very ancient book is the center of a controversy that has clung to Geoffrey since his own time. There is no surviving manuscript of the book. Most historians confess that there is very little (if any) firm evidence to support the belief that a book like this ever existed, but many of them are loath to give up the quest.[4] In 1951 a variant version of History was published which differs in many ways from the standard Latin vulgate text. This version lacked dedications, the acknowledgment of Archbishop Walter, and any references to a very ancient book, all of which appear in one form or another in the vulgate texts. Examination of the variant version led some scholars to theorize that this may have been Geoffrey's very ancient book. Unfortunately, there are a few problems with this theory. First, the book lacks the antiquity one would expect it to have; indeed, it seems to be contemporary with Geoffrey himself. Second, it is not written in the "British language," it is written in Latin.[5] To understand the controversy over the very ancient book, however, one must examine Geoffrey's History first.
The History of the Kings of Britain is a detailed narrative which begins with the Trojan diaspora which followed the fall of Troy. Geoffrey spends many pages on Brutus, the Trojan who was guided by the goddess Diana to lead Britain's first inhabitants to the island (that is, if you don't count the giants that were living there at the time). Brutus founded the city of Troia Nova (New Troy), later called Trinovantum, later called London, and it is after him that the island and its new resident population are named.[6] From these beginnings the Britons developed a sophisticated civilization, complete with roads, amphitheaters, and baths. Two wise lawgivers, Dunvallo Molmutius and Queen Marcia, separately codified bodies of just laws for the people.[7] There was a dramatic power struggle between two brothers, Belinus and Brennius, over the kingship of Britain to which Geoffrey pays special attention. Eventually the Romans show up, and they are surprised to find a civilization very much like their own thriving on this island that was "situated on almost the utmost border of the earth . . . and poised in the divine balance, as it is said, which supports the whole world."[8] [end excerpt]
[1] John Scott, ed., The Early History of Glastonbury: An Edition, Translation, and Study of William of Malmesbury's "De Antiquitate Glastonie Ecclesie," (Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk: The Boydell Press, 1981), 15.
[2] Nennius, Historia Brittonum, 1:1-2; J. A. Giles, ed. Six Old English Chronicles. (London: George Bell and Sons, 1900).
[3] Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae, trans. Lewis Thorpe (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd., 1966; reprint, 1968), 51.
[4] One author, Norma Lorre Goodrich, has gone so far as to claim that the best evidence for the existence of Geoffrey's very ancient book is the richness of detail found in his History. Ms. Goodrich does not give Geoffrey much credit for his imagination, as she argues that he could not possibly have made it all up, therefore he must have had another source. This argument, aside from its inherent absurdity, also overlooks an abundance of odd anachronisms peppered throughout Geoffrey's descriptions which further discredit the idea of an ancient source.
[5] Lewis Thorpe, introduction to History of the Kings of Britain by Geoffrey of Monmouth, 16.
[6] Michael J. Curley, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Twayne's English Authors Series (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1994), 15.
[7] Geoffrey, History, 94, 100. Geoffrey tells us that King Alfred later took this body of law and translated it into Saxon, calling it the "Mercian Law" after wise Queen Marcia the Briton.
[8] Gildas, De Excidio Britanniae et Conquestu, 2.3; J. A. Giles, ed. Six Old English Chronicles. (London: George Bell and Sons, 1900). For Caesar's brief monologue on the common Trojan heritage of the Britons and the Romans, see Geoffrey, History, 105.

In the fourth century, the Roman Emperor Constantine united all religious factions under one composite deity that encompasses all churches of the former pantheon, and ordered the compilation of new and old writings into a uniform collection that became the New Testament [].
Despite this conversion at the highest executive office, all churches devoted to the pantheon of deities recognized by the government continued to exist, including the "Egyptian" pantheon.
The "Heinsohn Horizon": 350 AD / 550 AD / 950 AD followed by a catastrophic disaster.

* "Divers Discovered a Spectacular, Ancient and Important Cargo of a Shipwreck; Israel Antiquities Authority archaeologists diving in the ancient harbor in the Caesarea National Park recovered beautiful statues, thousands of coins 1,600 years old and other finds from the seabed" (2016-05-17, []
* "Shipwrecked Roman treasure ‘saved’ from ancient recycling by devastating storm" (2016-05-17, [], attached video []: Sunken treasure pulled from the seabed of an ancient harbor in Israel was likely scattered during the destruction of a metal-laden merchant ship in a violent storm 1,600 years ago.
Divers from the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) have unearthed ancient artefacts from the port of Caesarea, a lucrative trading hub during the Roman Empire which was built by King Herod the Great.
The hoard of riches date from the Late Roman period and their discovery is described as a “fortuitous” find by the IAA, after two amateur divers spotted several submerged relics in Caesarea National Park, outside the city of Haifa.
A subsequent dive by IAA archaeologists and volunteers led to the discovery of a wooden vessel and nearby items such as iron anchors, metallic statues and coins. Many of these antiquities were cast during the reign of Emperor Constantine, who ruled around 300AD.
Among the items currently being studied by archaeologists are a bronze lamp of the sun god Sol, three life-size bronze statues, 20kg clumps of metal coins, and various ceramic pots.
The protective cover of sand at the bottom of the sea has kept the artifacts in almost pristine condition and the face of Constantine, the first Christian Roman Emperor, can be seen etched on the ancient currency.
Experts say the haul is the biggest in Israel in 30 years and appears to be the result of a violent tempest, which forced a vessel to crash up against a nearby seawall.
“These are extremely exciting finds, which apart from their extraordinary beauty, are of historical significance,” said Jacob Sharvit, head of marine archaeology at the IAA.
“The location and distribution of the ancient finds on the seabed indicate that a large merchant ship was carrying a cargo of metal slated recycling, which apparently encountered a storm at the entrance to the harbor,” he said.
“A preliminary study of the iron anchors suggests there was an attempt to stop the drifting vessel before it reached shore by casting anchors into the sea. However, these broke - evidence of the power of the waves and the wind which the ship was caught up in.”
Interestingly, many of the items might have been lost forever were it not for mother nature’s disastrous intervention.
According to Dror Planer, deputy director of the IAA Marine Archaeology Unit, precious metals were constantly being melted down at the time for reuse.
“Metal statues are rare archaeological finds because they were always melted down and recycled in antiquity. When we find bronze artifacts it usually occurs at sea,” Planer said.
“Because these statues were wrecked together with the ship, they sank in the water and were thus ‘saved’ from the recycling process.”
The two divers who made the initial discovery, Ofer Ra’anan and Ran Fainstein, have shared close-ups of the ancient items on social media.
The images depict a small blue figurine of the moon goddess, Luna, as well as the remains of Roman statues.

* IAA Director holding two artifacts []
* IAA excavator holding Luna statue []
* Assemblages of the artifacts [] [] [] [] [] [] []

On the video, artifacts are shown to be recovered in-situ, although their condition and placement instead shows that the artifacts were placed at their location for the sake of the recording.
Face of statue: [] [] []

Amphora [] []
Coins (.gif) [], video-still:

Scale, showing the process of excavation [] [] [] []. Not very rusty... either the video contains re-creations of the discovery, or the waters and silt are capable of keeping these artifacts intact despite the barnacles attached to other artifacts found in-situ in the same archaeological site...

Anchors, found in-situ


The first dynasty of China had an immense amount of brass used in their constructions and in the military. Was the brass trade in western Eurasia connected to China, or was the brass production indigenous to China?

* "Early captive carnivore remains found in ancient Mexican ruins" (2015-12-18, []

Prophecy Of Jeremias (Jeremiah) Chapter 50
[1] The word that the Lord hath spoken against Babylon, and against the land of the Chaldeans in the hand of Jeremias the prophet. [2] Declare ye among the nations, and publish it, lift up a standard: proclaim, and conceal it not: say: Babylon is taken, Bel is confounded, Merodach is overthrown, their graven things are confounded, their idols are overthrown. [3] For a nation is come up against her out of the north, which shall make her land desolate: and there shall be none to dwell therein, from man even to beast: yea they are removed, and gone away. [4] In those days, and at that time, saith the Lord, the children of Israel shall come, they and the children of Juda together: going and weeping they shall make haste, and shall seek the Lord their God. [5] They shall ask the way to Sion, their faces are hitherward. They shall come, and shall be joined to the Lord by an everlasting covenant, which shall never be forgotten.
[6] My people have been a lost flock, their shepherds have caused them to go astray, and have made them wander in the mountains: they have gone from mountain to hill, they have forgotten their resting place. [7] All that found them, have devoured them: and their enemies said: We have not sinned in so doing: because they have sinned against the Lord the beauty of justice, and against the Lord the hope of their fathers. [8] Remove out of the midst of Babylon, and go forth out of the land of the Chaldeans: and be ye as kids at the head of the flock. [9] For behold I raise up, and will bring against Babylon an assembly of great nations from the land of the north: and they shall be prepared against her, and from thence she shall be taken: their arrows, like those of a mighty man, a destroyer, shall not return in vain. [10] And Chaldea shall be made a prey: all that waste her shall be filled, saith the Lord.

* "The Vinland Map and Tartar Relation" book (1965, by R. A. Skelton, Yale University Press),
Plate 7. Names and Legends of the Vinland Map, Keyed by Numbers to the Annotated List, pp. 128-41. View Map [].
pg. 131, Note 25 []: Rex / Soldanus: Bi soldanus babelonie (icon.) ; = Egypt (Babilonia being the medieval name for Cairo).
pg. 131, 132, Note 30 []: Presti; Johannis Iste sunt terre populose ad meridiem grope sinurn / australe posite sed diuerso3, ydiomatum in unum deum et in dmil ihm / xptil credunt ecclesias habent in qui-bus orare possunt dicunt[ur] ("These are the populous lands of the Prester John situated in the south near the southern gulf. Although of diverse languages it is said that they believe in one God and in our Lord Jesus Christ and have churches in which they can pray") : Bi inperio prete ianis (icon.). Like all Europeans in the i3th century, C. de Bridia (TR, ¶17), here closely following Carpini (ed. d'Avezac, p. 655), locates Prester John in Asia. See Yule-Cordier, Vol. 2, pp. 231-37, and Rubruck, ed. Rockhill, pp. 150, 162; also F. Zarncke, Der Priester Johannes (1879-83). As Yule observes, "when the Mongol conquests threw Asia open to Frank travellers in the middle of the i3th century, their minds were full of Prester John". In spite of the confident identification of Prester John as "Unc Can" by Marco Polo, reports on the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia reaching Europe in the early 14th century suggested that Prester John was to be located in Africa. The first writers to identify him as the ruler of Ethiopia were the Genoese cartographer Giovanni da Carignano in 1306 (though his work is now lost) and Friar Jordanus in 1321 (ed. d'Avezac, p. 56), and the earliest mapmaker to record a Christian kingdom in Ethiopia was Angelino Dul-cert in 1339; see R. A. Skelton, "An Ethiopian Embassy to Western Europe in 1306", in Ethiopian Itineraries, ed. 0. G. S. Crawford (1958), pp. 212-15. By the beginning of the 15th century the location of Prester John in NE Africa was generally accepted by writers and cartographers; Bianco and the author of VM therefore reflect the current opinion of their day. (See Fischer, pp. 197-99; Beazley, Texts, pp. 278-80; Hallberg, pp. 281-85; E. D. Ross, "Prester John and the Empire of Ethiopia", in Travel and Travellers of the Middle • Agessed. A. P. Newton, 1926, pp. 174-94.) Maps which place Prester John in Asia are FP, Ves, Wal, Gen (also in Africa!) ; those which place him in Africa are CA, CE, Borgia, Bi, Le, Gen (also in Asia!), FM. The other details given in the legend in VM are borrowed from the text of TR: ¶26, referring to the countries conquered by Batu, Iste sunt terre christianorum sed diversorum ydiomatum et posite sunt ad meridiem iuxta mare; and Kitai ,. . . habent . . . domos quasi ecclesias in quibus orant . . . Hii unum deum colunt et credunt in dominum lesum Christum. In both passages TR agrees with Carpini's account.

Mentions of "Gog-Magog" included in "The Vinland Map and Tartar Relation" book (1965, by R. A. Skelton, Yale University Press) -
Index []: Gog and Magog, 34, 49, 57 note 2, 64, 65 note 1, 66 (¶ 15) and note 1, 104, 132, 250; in Alexander Romance, 30, 49, 63 note 2; in TR, see Index 2: Gog Magog; in VM, 134-35, 142, 153, 245, 247

Page 64 []:
¶12. When he drew near the Caspian Mountains, where the Jews called Gog and Magog by their fellow-countrymen are said to have been shut in by Alexander, lo and behold, everything made of iron, arrows from quivers, knives and swords from sheaths, stirrups from saddles, bits from bridles, horseshoes from horses' hooves, breastplates from bodies and helmets from heads, flew violently and with a tremendous clatter toward the mountain; and as the Tartars jestingly informed our Friar Benedict when they told this story, the heavier iron objects such as breastplates and helmets scurried along the ground to the mountain, raising a great cloud of dust and clanking, so that they were seized with blind horror. These mountains are believed to be magnetic (see note 5).
¶13. Chingis fled in terror with his army, and leaving the mountains on the right (see note 1) marched north east (see note 2).

Page 65 []:
¶13. Note 1. "On the right", if it will bear stressing, is remarkable. If the Caspian Mountains and Gog-Magog had been regarded here as situated in their usual peninsula on the Arctic coast or in furthest northeastern Asia, then Chingis Khan would have passed them to the left. But his passing them to the right suggests that in TR they are situated somewhere in Northern China, in a position where they were often connected with the Great Wall of China (see Yule, Polo, Vol. I, pp. 292-95; Anderson, pp. 99, 103).

Page 66 []:
¶15. While Chingis Khan was hurrying home from this country with his men after his defeat, he saw the Caspian mountains on the way, but did not go near them owing to his previous alarm. He noticed, however, that men had come out from the mountains owing to the noise made previously when the Tartars' iron-ware hurtled against them (see note 1), and wished to try his strength against them. As the two sides drew near to one another, lo and behold, a cloud came between them and divided them one from the other, like the Egyptians and the children of Israel long ago (see note 2). This makes it credible enough that these people were the Jews whom the Lord protected and warned by signs given to their fathers. Whenever the Tartars advanced toward the cloud they were struck blind, and some were even smitten dead, though they could see one another more or less through the cloud. However, finding it impossible after two days' journey' to cross to either side of the cloud without having it still in their way, they began to proceed on their journey.
¶15. Note 1. It would be overcritical to tax this charming tale with absurdity in saying that Chingis Khan, after a journey of six months to and from Narayrgen, found the tribes.of Gog-Magog had only just emerged to investigate the clatter of the magnetized equipment. But Carpini (ch. V, ¶16) has a different and more natural version (which follows immediately upon the material corresponding to TR ¶12, whereas in TR the story of the magic cloud is transferred to ¶15, after the visit to Narayrgen): that the tribes heard the noise and began to break through the mountain; and the Mongols returned ten years later (presumably on a different expedition), found the mountain broken, but were thwarted by the cloud when they tried to attack the enemy. Carpini's story of the break through the mountain recalls, with reversal of roles, the legend of the Mongols' escape from Ergene-kun (see above, ¶12; note 5), and (as he cannot therefore have invented it) must be a more correct version of the story received from the friars' informants.
¶15. Note 2. Exodus 14:19, 20. The story of the cloud is somehow related to the tale told by Prince Hetoum (lib. 1, ch. 10) of a

* "Revelation of John, the original Jewish version Apocalypse composition, dating & authorship" (retrieved 2016, with commentary [], without commentary [], with the thesis that this book is the eldest of the books contained in the New Testament and was later adapted to the then current context of Christian civilization during the age that the book was adapted, a thesis also explored by scholars with the Bahai faith [].
Interestingly, the researcher at ( posits by the omission of Gog-Magog in his reconstructed text that the knowledge of Gog-Magog was from a later age than when the the book was originally written.
Other scholars who explore the perception that the Book of Revelations of John was adapted in an age much later than when the book was originally written includes the following:
- From The Catholic Encyclopedia []: "... the theory advanced by the German scholar Vischer. He holds the Apocalypse to have been originally a purely Jewish composition, and to have been changed into a Christian work by the insertion of those sections that deal with Christian subjects. From a doctrinal point of view, we think, it cannot be objected to. There are other instances where inspired writers have availed themselves of non-canonical literature. Intrinsically considered it is not improbable. The Apocalypse abounds in passages which bear no specific Christian character but, on the contrary, show a decidedly Jewish complexion."
- From The Jewish Encyclopedia, an article by Crawford Howell Toy (Christian scholar, D.D., LL.D.) and Kaufmann Kohler (Ph.D.) []:
"The last book in the New Testament canon, yet in fact one of the oldest; probably the only Judæo-Christian work which has survived the Paulinian transformation of the Church. The introductory verse betrays the complicated character of the whole work. It presents the book as a "Revelation which God gave . . . to show unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass," and at the same time as a revelation of Jesus Christ to "his servant John." According to recent investigations, the latter part was interpolated by the compiler, who worked the two sections of the book—the main apocalypse (ch. iv.-xxi. 6) and the letters to the "seven churches" (i.-iii. and close of xxii.)—into one so as to make the whole appear as emanating from John, the seer of the isle of Patmos in Asia Minor (see i. 9, xxii. 8), known otherwise as John the Presbyter. The anti-Paulinian character of the letters to the seven churches and the anti-Roman character of the apocalyptic section have been a source of great embarrassment, especially to Protestant theologians, ever since the days of Luther; but the apocalypse has become especially important to Jewish students since it has been discovered by Vischer (see bibliography) that the main apocalypse actually belongs to Jewish apocalyptic literature."

* "Gog and Magog" (retrieved 2016, [] [begin excerpt]:
Magog is mentioned (Gen. x. 2; I Chron. i. 5) as the second son of Japheth, between Gomer and Madai. Gomer representing the Cimmerians and Madai the Medes, Magog must be a people located east of the Cimmerians and west of the Medes. But in the list of nations (Gen. x.) the term connotes rather the complex of barbarian peoples dwelling at the extreme north and northeast of the geographical survey covered by the chapter. Josephus ("Ant." ii. 6, § 1) identifies them with the "Scythians," a name which among classical writers stands for a number of unknown ferocious tribes. According to Jerome, Magog was situated beyond the Caucasus, near the Caspian Sea. It is very likely that the name is of Caucasian origin, but the etymologies adduced from the Persian and other Indo-European dialects are not convincing. In Ezek. xxxviii. 2 "Magog" occurs as the name of a country (with the definite article); in Ezek. xxxix. 6 as that of a northern people, the leader of whom is Gog. This "Gog" has been identified with "Gyges," but is evidently a free invention, from "Magog," of either popular tradition or the author of the chapter. The vivid description of the invasion indicates that the writer, either from personal knowledge or from hearsay, was acquainted with a disaster of the kind. Probably the ravages committed by the Scythians under Josiah (comp. Herodotus, i. 103, iv. 11) furnished him with his illustrative material. As contained in Ezekiel, the prophecy partakes altogether of the character of the apocalyptic prediction; i.e., it is not descriptive of events but predictive in a mystic way of happenings yet to be, according to the speculative theology of the writer. Winkler's theory ("Alt-Oriental. Forschungen," ii. 137, iii. 36) is that Alexander the Great and his invasion are the background. But this anticipates the development of the Gog legend, which, indeed, saw in the Macedonian king the Gog of the Biblical prophecy. [...]
Gog and Magog, or Yajuj and Majuj among the Arabs, are mentioned in the Koran and by most Arabic geographers as more or less mythical peoples. The chief interest inthem centers about two points: (1) the wall built by Dhu al-Ḳarnain (Alexander the Great) to shut them off from the rest of the world, and (2) their reappearance as a sign of the last day. Geographically they represent the extreme northeast, and are placed on the borders of the sea which encircles the earth. Descended from Japheth, son of Noah, they number twenty-four tribes. Six of these are known by name (one being that of the Turks); and the number of each tribe equals that of all the other people in the world. Some say that they belong to the Chazars, who are all Jews (Yaḳut, Geographisches Wörterb, ii. 440). [end excerpt]

* "The book of Revelation: translated from the ancient Greek Text" (1849) [], attached with a modern polemic by a Christian scholar against the various attempts at translations and the motives of the translators for the Book of Revelation of John.

“And the word of Jehovah came unto me, saying, Son of man, set thy face toward Gog, of the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, and prophesy against him, and say, ‘Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal: and I will turn thee about, and put hooks into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed in full armor, a great company with buckler and shield, all of them handling swords’” (Ezekiel 38:1-4).

“And when the thousand years are finished, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, and shall come forth to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to the war: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. And they went up over the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down out of heaven, and devoured them” (Revelation 20:7-9 — ASV).

* "Rosh" ( [] [begin excerpt]:
Easton's Bible Dictionary -
(Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1) is rendered "chief" in the Authorized Version. It is left untranslated as a proper name in the Revised Version. Some have supposed that the Russians are here meant, as one of the three Scythian tribes of whom Magog was the prince. They invaded the land of Judah in the days of Josiah. Herodotus, the Greek historian, says: "For twenty-eight years the Scythians ruled over Asia, and things were turned upside down by their violence and contempt." (see BETHSHEAN.)
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia -
2. Identification with Russia:
The identification of Rosh is not without its difficulties. Gesenius regarded it as indicating the Russians, who are mentioned in Byzantine writers of the 10th century under the name of Rhos. He adds that they are also noticed by Ibn Fosslan (same period), under the name of Rus, as a people dwelling on the river Rha (Volga). Apart from the improbability that the dominion of Gog extended to this district, it would be needful to know at what date the Rus of the Volga arrived there. [end excerpt]

It is significant that high antiquity Roman-era Jewish scholars attributed Magog to the Scythians.
The "Heinsohn Horizon" points towards the Scythians being like the Golden Horde, ruled by a Magogolian King of Kings.
* "Gog and Magog" (retrieved 2016-06, from [] [begin excerpt]: Early Christian writers (e.g. Eusebius) frequently identified Gog and Magog with the Romans and their emperor.[34] After the Empire became Christian, Ambrose (d.397) identified Gog with the Goths, Jerome (d.420) with the Scythians, and Jordanes (died c.555) said that Goths, Scythians and Amazons were all the same; he also cited Alexander's gates in the Caucasus.[35] (The idea that Gog and Magog were connected with the Goths was longstanding; in the mid-16th century, Archbishop of Uppsala Johannes Magnus traced the royal family of Sweden back to Magog son of Japheth, via Suenno, progenitor of the Swedes, and Gog, ancestor of the Goths).[36] The Byzantine writer Procopius said it was the Huns Alexander had locked out, and a Western monk named Fredegar seems to have Gog and Magog in mind in his description of savage hordes from beyond Alexander's gates who had assisted the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (610–641) against the Saracens.[37]
As one nomadic people followed another on the Eurasian steppes, so the identification of Gog and Magog shifted. In the 9th and 10th centuries these kingdoms were identified by some with the lands of the Khazars, a Turkic people who had converted to Judaism and whose empire dominated Central Asia–the 9th-century monk Christian of Stavelot referred to Gazari, said of the Khazars that they were "living in the lands of Gog and Magog" and noted that they were "circumcised and observing all [the laws of] Judaism".[38] Arab traveler ibn Fadlan also reported of this belief, writing around 921 he recorded that "Some hold the opinion that Gog and Magog are the Khazars."[39] According to the famous Khazar Correspondence (c. 960), King Joseph of Khazaria claimed that his people were the descendants of "Kozar", the seventh son of Togarmah.[40]
Some time before the 12th century the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel became identified with Gog and Magog.[41] The Franciscan traveller William of Rubruck reported that he had seen Alexander's wall in Derbent on the shores of the Caspian Sea in 1254, and that there were other walls holding back Jews that he been unable to visit; William shared his information with Roger Bacon, who urged the study of geography to discover where the Antichrist and Gog and Magog might be found.[42]
After the Khazars came the Mongols, seen as a mysterious and invincible horde from the east who destroyed Muslim empires and kingdoms in the early 13th century; kings and popes took them for the legendary Prester John, marching to save Christians from the Saracens, but when they entered Poland and Hungary and annihilated Christian armies a terrified Europe concluded that they were "Magogoli", the offspring of Gog and Magog, released from the prison Alexander had constructed for them and heralding Armageddon.[43] As traveler and Friar Riccoldo da Monte di Croce put it in ca. 1291, "They say themselves that they are descended from Gog and Magog: and on this account they are called Mogoli, as if from a corruption of Magogoli." Marco Polo traveled in the Mongol empire when the initial terror had subsided: he places Gog and Magog among the Tartars in Tenduc, but then claims that the names Gog and Magog are translations of the place-names Ung and Mungul, inhabited by the Ung and Mongols respectively.[44][45] Some accounts and maps began to place the "Caspian Mountains", and Gog and Magog, just outside the Great Wall of China. The Tartar Relation, an obscure account of Friar Carpini's 1240s journey to Mongolia, is unique in alleging that these Caspian Mountains in Mongolia, "where the Jews called Gog and Magog by their fellow countrymen are said to have been shut in by Alexander", were moreover purported by the Tartars to be magnetic, causing all iron equipment and weapons to fly off toward the mountains on approach.[46]
The author of the Travels of Sir John Mandeville, a 14th-century best-seller, said he had found these Jews in Central Asia where as Gog and Magog they had been imprisoned by Alexander, plotting to escape and join with the Jews of Europe to destroy Christians.[47] [end excerpt]
Illustration caption: Dhul-Qarnayn with the help of some jinn, building the Iron Wall to keep the barbarian Gog and Magog from civilized peoples. (16th century Persian miniature) []


Biblical history of the European nations as Israel the Ten Tribes brought to the north.
[] [] [] [] [] [] []

* Isaac Newton: "Papers relating to chronology and 'Theologiæ Gentilis Origines Philosophicæ' " (2008-11, []
* "Pagan Gods Were Mortal Men" (2014, by Brian Forbes) []
From Noah to Hercules What History Says about Early Man Internet Edition By Brian Forbes []

( []: Sir Isaac Newton, a father of physics, who discovered the math of gravity, was interested in early history.  He summarized it by saying that kings were made into gods by their citizens.  Kings of cities were deified by their cities, and kings of nations by their nations.
He said that this practice didn’t happen over time from the bottom up, but right away from the top down. He said that the original religion was given by Noah, but Mercury changed all that in honor of Osiris & Isis. He said that the historians of Egypt made the gods more ancient than they really were, and that many were ruling during the reign of king David of Israel.
Further, he said that Egypt was a land divided by Ham, the son of Noah, between his four sons. “Hercules is Chus, Osiris is Misraim, Antæus is Phut & Busiris is Canaan…” He said that the names of these men were corrupted, and that name changes happen frequently in history.  Nations were named for their kings, and they were renamed with every succession of a new king.
Noah’s religion consisted of sacrifices and prayer.  “…every family in travelling from place to place carried with them a sacred fire for sacrifices, the father of the family being as well Priest as king.”  This practice of carrying sacred fire continued into the building of temples. They replaced this religion of Noah with that of Idolatry, or the worship of figures carved out of wood or stone.  “…they made the images of the kings & building … set up the Images in the Temples & worshipped them as inhabited by the souls of the dead kings.” They also put the names of their kings and heroes onto planets and constellations, such as Jupiter and Orion. The planets moved in ways that were not always predictable to these ancient people, so they claimed that the spirit of the god was moving the planet around.
Newton claimed that the early earth, being ruled by men, was divided between the kings.  “…the Island Atlantis fell to the lot of Neptune who made his Eldest Son Atlas king of the whole island…” In mythology, there is symbolism, so when Hercules took the Globe from Atlas the author of the poem meant that the nation of Atlas was conquered by Hercules.  The Egyptians painted Saturn with two faces, because he reigned over two kingdoms.  It is also interesting that the founders of all these ancient nations were known to historians.  Newton said that the first founder and first successive king were called Saturn and Jupiter.
It turns out that the first founder of Egypt (Noah) had a wife named Titea, and her children were called Titens.
If the nations had known founders at known times, you wouldn’t expect large populations near the beginning. Newton points out two details from the Bible.  The nations of Shinar and Elam were defeated by Abraham with an army of 318 men. Egypt was so thinly peopled before Moses that Pharaoh said that the Israelites were more and mightier than they were.
Newton wasn’t the only one to see the correlation between the pagan gods and the Biblical patriarchs.  He built his history on the same foundation we all use, listing and verifying his sources.
Many modern historians trust the dates of the Egyptian kings.  Newton said that the Egyptian and Latin histories were not as reliable as the history of Israel.  The modern historians are using the exact history that Newton warns us not to use. They want to undermine the Bible.  Newton, though, a scientific thinker, always put the Bible in the place of higher dependability. It is clear that this scientist, at least, believed the ancient, written history of mankind.

Sir Isaac Newton summarized early history this way, "For it was
hitherto in fashion… to deify the founders of their kingdoms." "The kings of cities
were worshipped by the cities & the kings of Nations by the nations."
On Egypt,"So then if the Ægyptian Priests understood the originalls of their own
kingdom (& what nation I pray had more ancient records then they?) the Worship
of their Gods crept not in by degrees among the inferior people… but was
ordeined by their first Kings… we have the… corruption of the religion of Noah..."
"Mercury who was secretary & Counseller to Osiris & Isis… ordeined the
worship… of the Gods..." "…the Ægyptians made their deified kings very ancient,
though they were no older then the days of David Solomon & Rehoboam."
False religion had a beginning, "In
this tradition the Egyptians honour their
father Osiris with the whole administration.
If you correct them in this point & make Ham
the Lord of all & conceive that Osyris took
this journey southward to search his
inheritance you will here have the division of
the Countries of Ham amongst his children.
For Hercules is Chus, Osiris is Misraim,
Antæus is Phut & Busiris is Canaan as I find
by other records compared with this."
"Corruptions of names are frequent in
history." “…in those days kingdoms changed
their names with every king.”
Before the false, there was the true, “In the religion propagated… from
Noah… worshipped one God with prayers & praises… every family in travelling
from place to place carried with them a sacred fire for sacrifices, the father of the
family being as well Priest as king. Whence it became the custome of all nations
to keep perpetual fires in their sacred places … And this seems to have {been} the
religion of the world before the rise of Idolatry. …they made the images of the
kings & building … set up the Images in the Temples & worshipped them as
inhabited by the souls of the dead kings.” "…they set on foot the worship of their
kings & great men in the Planets, signes & Constellations, as if the souls of those
men resided in the Stars & animated them."
The nations were named for their kings, and many were famous, "He
saith also that in those days the Gods by consent divided the whole earth amongst
themselves partly into larger partly into smaller portions, & instituted Temples &
sacred rites to themselves & that the Island Atlantis fell to the lot of Neptune who
made his Eldest Son Atlas king of the whole island…” "And So when Hercules
took the Globe from Atlas it is to be understood that he took his kingdom from
him...The Egyptians painted [Saturn] with two faces becausse he reigned over
two kingdoms an old one & a new." "For the ancients gave the names of Saturn &
Iupiter to the two first kings of a kingdom…”
Some were forgotten in the Bible, "[Egyptians] say also that [Vranus]
married his sister Titæa or Terra & by her had many children called Titans..."
If the nations had known founders at known times, you wouldn’t
expect large populations near the beginning, "…in those days [nations
were] so thinly peopled that four kings from … Shinar & Elam … were pursued &
beaten by Abraham with an armed force of only 318 men... And Egypt was so
thinly peopled before the birth of Moses that Pharaoh said of the Israelites,
Behold the people of the children of Israel are more & mightier then we…"
“The time of the Argonautick expedition is confirmed by Astronomy.”
Newton wasn’t the only one to see the correlation between the
pagan gods and the Biblical patriarchs. He built his history on the
same foundation we all use. "These are the oldest historical books now
extant… the Chronical Canon of Ptolomy…Tobit, Iudith, Herodotus Thucydides,
the Annals of Tyre & Carthage… Diodorus, Strabo, Pausanias, Iosephus, & a few
others, can give us light into the history & Chronology of the first ages…"
Some Modern historians trust the Egyptians, "The Egyptians in
contending with other nations about their antiquities have made their monarchy
many thousands of years older then the truth.” Some deny Herodotus, “…but I
had rather trust to Herodotus." Newton trusted to the “scriptures”.
It is clear that this scientist, at least, believed the ancient historians.

Forgotten History of the Western People, from the earliest origins (
Chapter 3 - Dubious Histories
In 1498 a Dominican Friar, called Giovanni Nanni, otherwise known as Annius of Viterbo, published a set of fragments which he attributed to Berosus and the Egyptian historian Manetho. These fragments describe an elaborate history of the early descendants of Noah, in much more detail than had ever been known before, but his source documents could never be found and his entire published work is widely denouced as a forgery. There are elements of the story that correspond to other histories, but his fragments do not come from either Berosus or Manetho, and instead they are called pseudo-Berosus and pseudo-Manetho.
Although the fragments are fake, they were widely believed during the 16th century and many other histories have been based on them. It is therefore necessary to know the story, so that you will recognise it when it crops up somewhere.
Chapter 3 - Dubious Histories
69 - Annius of Viterbo
69 - Is Fake History Worth Anything?
71 - Lost Works of Berosus
71 - History of the World According to Annius and Friends
72 - Travels of Noah into Europe
72 - Holinshed's Chronicles
81 - Fables and Endless Genealogies

* "Forgotten history" (by Mike Gascoigne) [] [begin excerpt]:
False histories -
Annius was a Dominican Friar living in the town of Viterbo about 100 km north of Rome. In 1498 he published a set of fragments attributed to Berosus and Manetho, and the text and translation have been made available by Asher."' He describes a much more elaborate history, from Noah to Dardanus, inserting a number of additional generations. According to this history, Noah went to Italy and ruled the country for a while. Osiris had a son called Hercules who married a Scythian lady called Araxa, and they had a son called Tuscus who became king of Italy. Hercules also married a Celtic princess called Galathea and they had a son called Galatheus who became king of France (Celtica). I will not relate the whole story here, as it is available on my web site (as of 2002-04) [] but it is important for any serious student of early history to understand it. Annius of Viterbo never produced the source docu-ments on which his histories are based, and it is widely believed that he made it all up. His alleged fragments of Berosus and Manetho are called 'pseudo-Berosus' and `pseudo-Manetho'. Nevertheless, his work had consid-erable influence on Renaissance literature, and has to be recognised where it occurs. Anything that resembles the work of Annius has to be proved from other sources, or else discarded.
19. Asher. R.E., National Myths in Renaissance France; Francus. Surnames and the Druids. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh. 1993 Appendix I.

Volume of the Antiquated Bible -
Was is available at around 1000 years BM?
* "Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum" authored by a process attributed to as Pseudo-Philo, (retrieved 2016-06-02, [] [begin excerpt]: Pseudo-Philo is the name commonly used for a Jewish work in Latin, so called (false Philo) because it was transmitted along with Latin translations of the works of Philo of Alexandria, but is very obviously not written by Philo. Its more proper Latin title is Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum, a title sometimes translated into English as the Book of Biblical Antiquities. Parts of this work were brought back into Hebrew for the medieval Chronicles of Jerahmeel. [end excerpt]
- Frederick James Murphy (1993). Pseudo-Philo: Rewriting the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507622-6. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Howard Jacobson (1996). A Commentary on Pseudo-Philo's Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum: With Latin Text and English Translation. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-10553-9. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Philo (30 June 2007). The Biblical Antiquities of Philo. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60206-567-3. Retrieved 13 November 2012.

* "Chronicles of Jerahmeel" (retrieved 2016-06, from []: The Chronicles of Jerahmeel is a voluminous work that draws largely on Pseudo-Philo's earlier history of Biblical events and is of special interest because it includes Hebrew and Aramaic versions of certain deuterocanonical books in the Septuagint.
The Chronicles were published in English as The Chronicles of Jerahmeel Or, the Hebrew Bible Historiale by the Royal Asiatic Society, translated by Moses Gaster, 1899. Gaster stated in his extensive preface his view (p. xx) that the Chronicles were compiled from several Hebrew sources, some quite ancient and others more recent.
The actual compiler of the chronicles identifies himself as "Eleasar ben Asher the Levite' who, according to Gaster, lived in the Rhineland in the 14th century. The most recent events depicted in the Chronicles refer to the time of the Crusades, but the entire rest of it pertains to the period before AD 70. Among the early sources quoted in the work is the 1st century Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus.
Gaster explained that he chose to title it "Chronicles of Jerahmeel" instead of "Chronicles of Eleasar" because of his analysis that Eleasar was merely a compiler, while the enigmatic "Jeraḥmeel" is the source most extensively reproduced, following the Yosippon which is otherwise extant. This 'Jerahmeel' has since been identified as Jerahmeel ben Solomon, thought to have flourished in Italy around 1150. After a thorough discussion of all the textual evidence, Gaster further concluded that, like the closely related Sefer haYashar, it relies on sources ultimately dependent on Isidore of Seville, particularly evident in its mention of "Franks" and "Lombards" among the Sons of Noah.

Why are there antiquated versions of the Holy Bible floating around the Roman Empire without controversy? These were not publicly available Bibles, yet they are copied incorrectly with alternative versions of the books of the Bible...
If High Antiquity Rome coincided with Medieval Rome, these Bibles are, indeed, "antiquated versions of the Bible", and reflect the beliefs of the aeon which they are compiled.
For Gog Magog to be identified with the Scythians by Jewish historians of High Antiquity Rome, and for Gag Magog to be labeled as Jewish by Medieval Rome historians, makes one certain that Gog Magog refer to the land of Khazars...

* []: “The Rosh=Russia interpretation was introduced to Christians in the first edition of the Scofield Reference Bible in 1917. Scofield wrote that ‘The reference to Meshech and Tubal (Moscow and Tobolsk) is a clear mark of identification (i.e., with Russia).’ (11)

* []: This map of the table of Nations made in 1624 seems to do a very decent job of tracing the Tribes of Japheth over the years.


* "Did Rama exist?" (retreved 2003-09-24, by Nanditha Krishna, []
* "Hanuman bridge is myth: Experts" (200210-19, []

Under the Second Empire (1852–1871), the Code de l'indigénat (Indigenous Code) was implemented by the Sénatus-consulte of July 14, 1865. It allowed Muslims to apply for full French citizenship, a measure that few took, since it involved renouncing the right to be governed by sharia law in personal matters and was considered a kind of apostasy. Its first article stipulated:
The indigenous Muslim is French; however, he will continue to be subjected to Muslim law. He may be admitted to serve in the army (armée de terre) and the navy (armée de mer). He may be called to functions and civil employment in Algeria. He may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoy the rights of a French citizen; in this case, he is subjected to the political and civil laws of France. (for French original, see below)[22]
However, prior to 1870, fewer than 200 demands were registered by Muslims and 152 by Jewish Algerians.[23] The 1865 decree was then modified by the 1870 Crémieux decrees, which granted French nationality to Jews living in one of the three Algerian departments. In 1881, the Code de l'Indigénat made the discrimination official by creating specific penalties for indigenes and organizing the seizure or appropriation of their lands.[23]
 "L'indigène musulman est français; néanmoins il continuera à être régi par la loi musulmane. Il peut être admis à servir dans les armées de terre et de mer. Il peut être appelé à des fonctions et emplois civils en Algérie. Il peut, sur sa demande, être admis à jouir des droits de citoyen français; dans ce cas, il est régi par les lois civiles et politiques de la France" (article 1 of the 1865 Code de l'indigénat)
^ Jump up to: a b le code de l'indigénat dans l'Algérie coloniale, Human Rights League (LDH), March 6, 2005 – URL accessed on January 17, 2007 (French)

There not being 600 years between "ancient Rome" and "modern" Rome of the Renaissance, the following article describes a mystery which can now be explained... the time that lapsed between the science of Babylon and the science of western Europe is much shorter than historians believe.
* "Babylonians used astronomy techniques 1,500yrs ahead of Europeans" (2016-01-29, []

* "Who are the Chaldeans?" (retrieved 2016 from [] [begin excerpt]: The two names, "Chaldean" and "Assyrian", are still widely used to indicate same nation and people. In the area of religion, "Chaldean" still applies to all Chaldean Catholics of Iraq who use the Aramaic language and follow the teachings of Rome. The term "Assyrian" is used to indicate the followers of Nestorius, and has been employed as a name for the Nestorian Church since 1886. Chaldean Alphabet
In 1445, the then-Nestorian Church in Cyprus indicated her wishes to join Rome, the pope accepted the letter of conversion from Bishop Timothawes of the Chaldeans in Tarshish and Cyprus who wrote Pope Eugene IV identifying himself as "Bishop Timothaeus of the Chaldeans..".  On September 7, 1445, Pope Eugene IV accepted the conversion of the Chaldean community in Cyprus into Catholicism, and from then on the word "Chaldean" became the official term used to identify Chaldean Catholics by the Roman Church. Today, the Archbishop of Iraq's Chaldean Catholics goes by the official name of "The Patriarch of Babylon over the Chaldeans".
In conclusion, when in 1552 the major split in the Church of the East took place with a good percentage of the church converting to Catholicism, Rome simply extended the name of the Chaldean Church of Cyprus to cover all those new Catholic converts in Mesopotamia proper. That is, it followed the name used by the Nestorian Christian descendents of the Babylonians and Assyrians of Mesopotamia to identify themselves. After all, they spoke the Chaldean language, they carried on the Chaldean heritage, they practiced the customs that were undeniably Chaldean -- what better name to identify them with than "Chaldeans". They were not Romans, Medes, Turks, Mongols, nor Macedonians, but "Chaldeans"! Therefore, the name "Chaldean" has come to bear national significance, linguistic and cultural aspects, as well as religious connotations. [...]
For the first four centuries of Christianity, the Church of the East considered itself as an integral part of the Catholic, i.e. Universal, Church. In the fifth century and later, as a consequence of political circumstances and Christological controversies, the majority of this church accepted the Nestorian Christological formulas --condemned in the Ephesian Council (431 A.D.) as a valid expression of the common faith, thus isolating itself from the Church of the Roman Empire, and therefore was called "the Nestorian Church".
In a millennium of isolation, the Church of the East accomplished the most prodigious and ambitious missionary expansion of the Middle Ages, that is between the 7th and end of the 13th century. "Nestorian" monks spread the Gospel, together with the Aramaic Alphabet and culture, among the peoples of Khurasan, Azurbeijan, Afghanistan, Turkumanistan, Mongolia, China, Tibet, India, Japan and the Philippines. The Stele of Si-Ngan-Fu in China (A.D.781), and the 611 tomb-stones discovered in the province of Semiryenchensk in Southern Siberia, all inscribed in Aramaic Estrangelo letters, remain eloquent witnesses of the magnitude of Mesopotamian missionary expansion and influence. The living remnant of that fervor and shared spirituality are the three million Indians in Malabar, Kerala, who still follow the Chaldean Rite. The Mongolian vexations and persecutions, in the first half of the 14th century, were what decimated the children and the dioceses of the Church of the East.Hirmizd Chaldean Monastery
At the beginning of the 15th century, good segments of this glorious Church, moved by the spirit of renewal, found the road of Rome again reestablishing the ecclesiastic unity with the Catholic Church in 1553. Being shrunk to their mother-land in Mesopotamia, the descendants of ancient Babylonians and Assyrians found also the awareness of their ethnic and cultural identity, resuming the last and most glorious of their ancestors names: Chaldeans. Those who are still separated from Rome hold the name of Assyrians. Their Church is the Assyrian Church of the East. Many members of the Chaldean Catholic Church of Iran prefer to be called "Assyrian Catholics” in order to express their ethnic background as well as their attachment to their faith. [...]
The period that followed the conclusion of unity agreement wilt Rome was a period of bitter struggle, even bitter fight among the children of the Church of the East; between the camp of those who were for full ecclesiastic and canonical communion with Rome, on one side, and the camp of those opposing it, on the other. Youhanan Sulaka, the newly elected Patriarch, fell martyr for the cause of unity on 12 November 1555 by the hands of agents Turkish Pasha of Amadia, of the opposing faction.
In regard to the movement of Catholic unity, we could distinguish three regions in Northern Mesopotamia:
1) The region of Diarbekir, Mardin and Seert, they were the center of unity movement.
2) The region of Azurbejan Induding Urmia, Salamas and Hekari, they were isolated areas and distant from any communication with the Western missionaries;
3) the Nineveh region, including Rabban Hormizd monastery, the town and cities of the plain of Mossoul, where there was a heated struggle between the two factions, with the unity faction gaining ground.
After the death of Youhannan Sulaka, Mar 'Abdiso' Marun succeeded him, having his See in Diarbekir until his death in 1567; he was succeeded by Mar Yabbalaha who died in 1580. His successor, Mar Shimoun IX, the bishop of Gelo and Salamas, installed his see in St. John monastery near Salamas; the same did his successor Shimoun X; while Shimoun XI and Shimoun XII moved the see to Urmia in the vicinity. After Shimoun IX the heredity system was revived again for the hierarchical succession among the successors of Sulaka.
[end excerpt]

Comet and the Carolina Bays [] [] [] []

* "Was Sardinia Atlantis Before A Comet Submerged It?" (2015-08-18, []

* "Wild Heart of Sweden In the rugged, remote splendor of Laponia, visitors are on their own" (2015-10, by Don Belt, [] [begin excerpt]: More recently—perhaps 5,000 years ago—Laponia was settled by nomadic hunters of reindeer who were ancestors of modern-day Sami, the indigenous people of northern Scandinavia whose lives moved to the rhythms of the reindeer herd. Caucasians who speak a Finno-Ugric language more closely related to Hungarian than to Swedish, the Sami are thought to have rambled north out of central Europe toward the Kola Peninsula of present-day Russia and west across the frozen boreal wastes of what is now Finland, Sweden, and Norway. [end excerpt]


* "London as you've never seen it mapped before: Evolution of the capital revealed from Shakespeare's time to the hidden world of today's underground city; 'Mapping London' exhibition contains earliest existing map of capital - designed to 'lift spirits' not give directions; In other early examples cartographers used maps to warn people of pickpockets, slums and fire hazards; Exhibition shows how maps went from a form of pleasure to a serious, accurate way of plotting the growing city" ( []
1572: This magnificent plan, believed to be the oldest original of London in existence, was published by Braun and Hogenberg. In it London is depicted in birds-eye view from the south looking north. Four figures in traditional Tudor dress alongside Latin that says the capital is 'famed amongst many peoples for its commerce, adorned with houses and churches, distinguished by fortifications, famed for men of all arts and sciences, and lastly for its wealth in all things'
"Londinum Feracissimi Angliae Regni Metropolis"


Secret Origin of Santa Claus

“NIMROD” – The LORD of Christmas -
“Nimrod started the great organized worldly apostasy from God that has dominated this world until now. Nimrod married his own mother, whose name was Semiramis. After Nimrod’s death, his so-called mother-wife, Semiramis, propagated the evil doctrine of the survival of Nimrod as a spirit being. She claimed a full-grown evergreen tree sprang overnight from a dead tree stump, which symbolized the springing forth unto new life of the dead Nimrod. On each anniversary of his birth,
she claimed, Nimrod would visit the evergreen tree and leave gifts upon it. December 25th, was the birthday of Nimrod. This is the real origin of the Christmas tree.”
-The Plain Truth About Christmas by David J. Stewart | December 24th, 2005

“Traditionally, a yule log was burned in the fireplace on Christmas Eve and during the night as the log’s embers died, there appeared in the room, as if by magic, a Christmas tree surrounded by gifts. The yule log represented the sun-god Nimrod and the Christmas tree represented himself resurrected as his own son Tammuz.”
–After Armageddon -Chapter 4, Where do we get our ideas? by John A. Sarkett

“So our Christmas tree — and our yule log — have tremendous meaning, but not a Christian meaning. The yule log is the dead Nimrod, human ruler of ancient Babylon, who was eventually deified as the sun incarnate, and hence a god. The Christmas tree is mystical Tammuz, the slain god come to life again.”
–After Armageddon -Chapter 4, Where do we get our ideas? by John A. Sarkett []

* "Popular Religious Holidays Where They Really Came From" ( [] [begin excerpt]:
Nimrod and the City of Babel -
This new “Christianity” altered and rejected the true teachings of the Bible and embraced many pagan traditions and customs. Over the centuries, this counterfeit church grew enormously large, dwarfing the true Church.
But where did this counterfeit church get its teachings? How did it come to embrace Christmas trees, hot cross buns, Easter eggs, Yule logs and mistletoe? To get a clear understanding, we must go back in time thousands of years to the foundation of this world’s religions. We find this described in the book of Genesis. There we find a man named Nimrod. He was “a mighty hunter before the Lord” (Gen. 10:9), which is more accurately translated “in opposition to,” or “in place of,” the Lord.
Josephus, a prominent Jewish historian, stated, “it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God...he also changed the government into tyranny” (Book of the Antiquities, bk. I, ch. IV, pt. 2).
Nimrod, born after the Flood, claimed to be the “savior” of mankind—supposedly saving them from God! After God scattered the nations at Babel (Gen. 11:8) and after the death of Nimrod, his followers continued their rebellion in secret. They developed an intricate system called “the mysteries.” In order to deceive the people, the priests of Nimrod began calling their customs by names that appeared to honor God!
Nimrod took the name “Baal,” which when translated into English means “lord,” and into Greek, “Adonis.”
Nimrod was so evil, it was later said by the Egyptians that he married his own mother, Semiramis. After Nimrod’s death, his mother-wife declared that Nimrod had survived as a spirit being. She claimed a full-grown evergreen tree “sprang up” overnight from a dead stump, which symbolized the springing forth unto new life of the dead Nimrod. On each anniversary of his birth—December 25th—she claimed that Nimrod would visit the evergreen tree and leave gifts upon it. Millions are unaware that this is the real origin of the Christmas tree!
Nimrod’s mother-wife, Semiramis, took the title of the “mother of god,” and was worshipped as “Ishtar,” the mother goddess of dawn or light. Although the spelling differs, her new name was pronounced the same way as the word Easter! She was worshipped in the spring on her feast day—a ritual of fertility!
In this Babylonish system, the “mother and child” (Semiramis, and Nimrod reborn) became chief objects of worship. This worship of “mother and child” spread all over the world.
Their names varied in different countries and languages. One name for Nimrod was “Santa,” commonly used throughout Asia Minor (Langer’s Encyclopedia of World History, p. 37). The followers of “St. Nicholas” are termed “Nicolaitanes” in the New Testament. Nicolas was merely the Greek word for Nimrod. “Santa Claus” is a shortened form of St. Nicholas. All of these names were a direct attempt to disguise their true identity, and promote the “mystery.”
Time and time again, the god of this world (II Cor. 4:4) has sought to overwhelm God’s servants, attempting to pull them away from the true God and into embracing pagan customs and gods. Is Satan—as “prince of the power of the air” (Eph. 2:2)—still active in broadcasting this deception?
Christmas, New Years and Easter customs were celebrated in Rome long before the birth of Christ! This Babylonian mystery system is an economic and religious system reaching all parts of the world! Let’s first look at Christmas.

Origins of Christmas Customs -
Near the end of December, the Romans set aside several days to celebrate the winter solstice (when the sun reached the lowest point in the heavens and the days were shortest). The high point of this solar festival was the “Saturnalia.”      
Notice: “In private the day [Saturnalia] began with the sacrifice of a young pig...all ranks devoted themselves to feasting and mirth, presents were interchanged among friends, and crowds thronged the streets, shouting ‘lo Saturnalia!’” (“Oscilla,” Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 3rd ed., vol. 2).
Figurines and masks, called “oscilla,” were hung on the tree, similar to Christmas decorations today. The practice of commemorating the winter solstice is not limited to ancient Rome. Nearly every pagan nation has observed a “counterpart” to modern Christmas customs.
Notice what God says about the Christmas tree: “Learn not the way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven [signs of the skies, winter solstice]; for the heathen are dismayed at them. For the customs of the people are vain: for one cuts a tree out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workman, with the axe. They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not.” (Jer. 10:2-4).
So, when and how did ancient Rome begin to call these pagan customs “Christian”? The Encyclopedia Britannica holds the answers: “Christmas observance started at Rome about A.D. 336. In Roman times, festivals of Isis or Osiris [of Egypt] were held on December 25. In the religion of Sol [sun god of Babylon] festivals were determined by astronomy. The greatest festival was held on December 24-25, the time of the winter solstice; it was regarded as the day of the rebirth of the sun, and the renovation of life.
“In the time of Emperor Constantine, Rome’s policy was to ‘absorb’ the pagan observances to gain nominal adherents to the church. In the B.C. Roman world, the Saturnalia was a time of ‘merry making’ and ‘exchanging gifts’” (“History of Christmas,”
As can be seen, this festival dates back to the time of ancient Babylon. But some may think that gift-giving is scriptural—as it began with the wise men.
In actual fact, the wise men did not present gifts to Christ because it was his birthday. Rather, they came to present gifts to a King. People from the east never approached the presence of a king without a gift (Clarke’s Commentary, vol. 5, p. 46). Nowhere in Scripture is there an endorsement to celebrate Christ’s birth.
All of these pagan traditions collided with Christianity, during the Fourth and Fifth Centuries, when hundreds of thousands of Romans were “accepting Christianity.” Their old pagan customs and beliefs were blended into this developing “Christianity,” and such concepts as the “Madonna” and “mother and child” idea, not to mention the decorating of a tree, became very popular at Christmas time.

Origins of Easter Sunday -
Like Christmas, the origins of Easter are deeply rooted in pagan customs. It was A.D. 325 when Easter displaced the Passover. Many think that Christ’s sacrifice removed the need to keep the Passover. However, Christ actually commanded us to keep the Passover, albeit with different symbols (Luke 22:13-20).
During the early fourth century, there was much prejudice between Jewish and Gentile Christians. The Jewish Christians kept separate from the Gentile Christians because Gentiles only accepted Christianity when the Roman church and Emperor agreed to also accept pagan ideas.
While Emperor Constantine was not a Christian, he saw the advantage of merging Christianity with the worship of the sun god. The intensity of this battle grew to a feverish pitch when Emperor Constantine made Easter the “official” day—replacing Passover. Notice his statement at the Council of Nicea: “We ought not, therefore, to have anything in common with the Jews [Jewish Christians]...we desire, dearest brethren, to separate ourselves from the detestable company of the Jews” (Eusebius, Vita Const., Lib. iii., 18-20).
Encyclopedia Britannica goes on to state that “Rome’s policy was to absorb the pagan observances in order to gain followers” (
Also, note the statement regarding the tradition of the Easter bunny: “The Easter Bunny is a symbol of the pagan rite of fertility...Hot cross buns and colored eggs are traced back to the Chaldean rites of Babylonish worship” (Ibid.).
There are some other interesting facts surrounding the Easter and Lenten season. Notice: “In Babylon, a 40-day fast was observed as an important preliminary of the “great feast” held in commemoration of the “death and resurrection of Tammuz [Nimrod]...Lent is borrowed from the worshippers of the Babylonian queen of heaven [Semiramis]” (Ibid.).
As you can see, the links between ancient pagan festivals and Easter are undeniable. Long before Christ, Satan prepared to deceive mankind about Christ’s Resurrection. By creating the stories of Nimrod millennia ago, Satan has been able to deceive this world into believing that we should celebrate Christ’s Resurrection with Easter eggs, bunnies, and hot cross buns.
Any encyclopedia shows that Christmas, New Year’s, Lent and Easter (and, for that matter, Halloween and St. Valentine’s Day) are pagan festivals long predating Christianity.
[end excerpt]

* "Nordic countries in annual contest to claim real Santa" (2015-12-23, AP Newswire) []
* "Merry (Western) Christmas from Siberia (where Santa is not always red!); Seasonal greetings from the east of Russia where there are no less than seven different Father Christmas figures to bring joy to children in winter" (2015-12-24, []


* "Dark Ages ‘palace’ discovered at location long claimed to be birthplace of King Arthur" (2016-08-03, [] [begin excerpt]:
Archaeologists have unearthed the remains of what they believe could be a Dark Ages palace on the spot in Cornwall where a medieval writer claimed King Arthur was born.
The excavation at Tintagel, on the southwest coast, has uncovered the greatest concentration of Dark Ages artifacts ever found in Britain, including hundreds of fragments of pottery that could have been used to store wine and olive oil imported from the Mediterranean. Archaeologists say it implies the building was a major “royal centre.”
The pieces of pottery date back to the fifth or sixth centuries, suggesting the thick walls nearby could be the remains of a building from the era in which King Arthur is often said to have lived.
Geoffrey of Monmouth, a 12th-century historian, wrote in his History of the Kings of Britain that Arthur was born at Tintagel, yet the only known castle on the site was built in the 1230s. [...]
Archaeologists unearthed 200 fragments of pottery including parts of amphorae, used to transport wine from the Greek islands, and fine-quality imported glass. “It is clearly a major site,” said Win Scutt, a properties curator at English Heritage, which funded the dig. “All we can say is: it is very high status and it is linked into Mediterranean trade like no other site in Britain that we know of. That implies that it is a royal site.”
But Scutt cautioned against jumping to Arthurian conclusions. “Some people say we’re looking for clues for Arthur,” he said. “We’re not looking for anything of the sort.
“We don’t know what Geoffrey of Monmouth was drawing on: his was a work of fact and fiction and disentangling the two is fraught with difficulties. Maybe there was still some folk knowledge that this was an important site or maybe there were still some ruins here. Most likely, he decided to attach a legendary figure of Arthur to oral history of a royal site.” [end excerpt]


* "Children's Song Preserves Early American Hymn to Goddess of Witches, Says Academic" (2016-07-07, AP Newswire) []: Was the common American children's song She'll Be Comin' Round the Mountain originally a hymn to the Moon Goddess of the Witches?
A new study by historian and ethnomusicologist Stefano Pozzo, current chair of ethnomusicology at Massachusetts' prestigious Miskatonic University, suggests that this may indeed be the case.
“It's one of the great mysteries of American paidomusicology [the study of children's music],” says Pozzo. “Who is this mysterious and powerful female driving six white horses? I think that we can now say confidently that we know exactly who she is.”
In the current issue of Ethnomusicology Today, Pozzo examines the earliest surviving texts of the song to present his case.
“She'll be coming' round the mountain when she comes,” he writes, “Could one ask for a clearer image of moonrise?”
According to Pozzo, when 17th century British witches fled to the New World to escape religious persecution, they brought their immemorial devotion to the Moon along with them.
“Who else drives six white horses?” he asks. “The white horse is one of the Moon's most ancient symbols, and of course in Classical art the moon-goddess Luna-Selene is commonly portrayed as a charioteer.”
Pozzo sees the song as a community's hymn in anticipation of moonrise and the subsequent full Moon sabbat.
“The line And we'll all go out to meet her when she comes, clearly indicates a community-wide celebration,” he says, adding that the verses We'll kill the old red rooster and We'll all have chicken and dumplings "reference the traditional moonrise sacrifices and sabbat feasting.”
The song's call-and-response format resembles that of other early 18th and 19th century American hymns, and probably formed the basis for impromptu improvisation.
For this reason, Pozzo writes, it's not altogether certain which lines are original to the hymn and which have been added later.
“It's possible that the line She'll be carrying six white puppies refers to the well-known ancient association between the Moon and canines. But it may also be a later addition, intended humorously. At the moment, we're unable to say for certain.”
According to Pozzo, even the song's cyclic nature—it generally ends with a repetition of the first stanza—demonstrates its lunar nature. “Form fitting function,” he says.
Similarly, the song derives its "subtextual" nature from its cultural context.
“Witchcraft was a capital offense in Colonial America,” observes Pozzo, “so you had to be discreet about what you said in public. Most early American witch songs are characterized by this 'hiding in plain sight' nature, which turns one, outer, face to non-witches and another, secret, face to those already in the know.”
While one mystery may have been solved, others still remain.
“The song would seem to have originated among the witch-communities of the Appalachians,” Pozzo writes, “but is the mountain in question a specific peak, or is this a mythological mountain, perhaps the legendary Sabbat Mount?”
Clearly, questions remain.

She'll Be Comin' Round the Mountain
(American Folk)

She'll be comin' round the mountain when she comes,
She'll be comin' round the mountain when she comes,
She'll be comin' round the mountain,
She'll be comin' round the mountain,
She'll be comin' round the mountain when she comes.

She'll be driving six white horses...

She'll be carrying six white puppies...

And we'll all go out to meet her...

And we'll kill the old red rooster...

And we'll all have chicken and dumplings...

She'll be comin' round the mountain when she comes...

There is no tree in the entire western Eurasian sub-continent that predates the "Heinsohn Horizon".
* "Eastern Europe: Tree rings reveal climate variability and human history" (2013-01-14, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL) [], summary:
A total of 545 precisely dated tree-ring width samples, both from living trees and from larch wood taken from historical buildings in the northern Carpathian arc of Slovakia, were used to reconstruct May-June temperatures yearly back to 1040 AD. The tree-ring data from the Tatra Mountains best reflects the climate history of Eastern Europe, with a geographical focus on the Baltic.

* "Europe's oldest known living inhabitant" (2016-08-19, Stockholm University) [], summary: A Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii) growing in the highlands of northern Greece has been dendrocronologically dated to be more than 1,075 years old. This makes it currently the oldest known living tree in Europe.
Photo caption: Adonis, a Bosinan pine, more than 1,075 years old, living in the alpine forests of the Pindos mountains in northern Greece.


Dinosaurs []

Neanderthal information []

* "World's oldest bank faces uphill battle with EU trying for another bailout" (2016-07-15, [] [begin excerpt]: Italy’s third-largest and the world’ oldest bank, Monte dei Paschi de Siena [...] The bank, which was founded in 1472 [...]

* "Genesis in Chinese Pictographs" ( [], more info []

* " ‘1st of its kind’ in Norway: Archaeologists unearth 1,500yo Viking settlement beneath airbase" (2015-12-25, []

* "Rök runestone: New interpretation of ancient text sheds light on Viking culture" (2016-05-03, []

* "Star of David found engraved into an ancient Temple arouses bustle in Egypt; Egyptian official accused the delegation of German archaeologists that has been working on the site's reconstruction of engraving the Stars of David into the Shrine's stone" (2016-04-03, []

The act of adapting pre-existing icons into the current misinterpretation of a religion continues currently what had been done in the adoption of the non-Christ icons to represent Christ during the Medieval Age.
* "Archaeologists Find ‘Impressive’ Ancient Statue That Could Symbolize Jesus or the Flock of the ‘Good Shepherd’ " (2015-12-27, [] [begin excerpt]: Israeli archaeologists announced Sunday the discovery of a ram statue in the ancient port city of Caesarea they believe may have been meant to depict either Jesus or the Good Shepherd’s flock.
“In ancient Christianity Jesus was not portrayed as a person. Instead, symbols were used, one of which was the ram,” excavation directors Dr. Peter Gendelman and Mohammad Hater said in a joint statement announcing the Christmas Eve discovery of the marble ram. [...]
The ram depiction – which the archaeologists described as “impressive” – was found near an ancient Byzantine period church in the city along Israel’s northern Mediterranean coast.
“The statue that we found might have been part of the decoration of a Byzantine church from the sixth–seventh centuries CE at Caesarea. By the same token it could also be earlier, from the Roman period, and was incorporated in secondary use in the church structure,” the excavation directors said.
In addition to the Christian significance, the ram was used in Greek and Roman art, sometimes appearing alongside the Greek god Hermes and his Roman equivalent Mercury. It was also used to represent the Egyptian god Amun.
The excavation is being conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Caesarea Development Corporation. [end excerpt]

* "Was Jesus really nailed to the cross?" (2016-03-16, []
[begin excerpt]:
Gemstones, some used for magical purposes, also provide some of our earliest depictions of the crucified Jesus. This second or third century piece of carved jasper depicts a man on a cross surrounded by magic words.
Magical gem. British Museum CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 ; info [], photo []

Another very early image of the crucifixion is found carved into the face of a carnelian gemstone made into a ring.
Constanza gemstone with the crucified Christ, surrounded by 12 apostles. British Musem CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 ; Info "The Constanza Carnelian and the Development of Crucifixion Iconography in Late Antiquity" (.pdf) [], photo [].

Scholars think that the Constanza gemstone, as it is known, dates from the fourth century CE.  [end excerpt]

"Christ Myth"
* "A Timeline of Jesus Mythicism" ( []
* []
* "Christ myth theory" (retrieved 2015-10-20, []
* "Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ" (2007-01-03, by R.G. Price, part 1 [], part 2 []
* "The Gospel of Mark as Reaction and Allegory" (2007-10-20, by R.G. Price, []

(.pdf) []

* "Range Expansion of Moose in Arctic Alaska Linked to Warming and Increased Shrub Habitat" (2016-04-13, []

* "Egyptian chronology and the Bible—framing the issues" ( []

The confluence of indigenous nations of the northeastern African continent, including the eastern Mediterranean, may lend a reason as to why Egypt existed, and also why the various busts depict different types of people.
Some busts resemble the the European Roman man depicted on the left, and others depict a King of Meroe, side by side, as it were. Egypt was where the Kings gathered.

A cartoon [] shows an agrarian "cave man" coming upon a horse and imagining the progress towards the heavens he will make if he is successful in domesticating it. Casually, he imagines in succession the following images, which appear to be a "mixture" of different aeons of history. While the cartoon is, of course, not to be taken seriously, it reflects how in the New Chronology, a peasant "cave-man" would be familiar with Medieval, Ancient, and Capitalist Roman visages as they all existed at the same aeon c. 1000 years BM.

* "Chinese archaeologists discover ancient cave-dweller cultivated land for food" (2017-11-06, [], referring to the New Stone Age (4500 BCE).
* "Chinese archaeologists discover cave-dwelling agrarian society" (2017-11-05, []

A conclusion is contained in the following comic [], though humorous, reflect the possibility that the Great Pyramids at Giza were only "discovered", or "unearthed", by Europeans aeons after they were originally built.


* "10 Incredible Things You Should Know About The Roman Legionary" ( []

* "10 Interesting Things You Should Know About The Medieval Knight" ( []

* "10 Incredible Things You Should Know About The Templars" ( []

* "Crusader-era Hand Grenade Among Archaeological Treasures a Dad Found in the Sea; Electric company worker found 3500-year-old knife bit, many artifacts over the years; now returned by family to State of Israel" (2016-08-23, []

* "Evidence Of ‘Mythical’ Flood Might Just Make The Case For China’s First Dynasty" (2016-08-09, []

* "8 Surprising Facts About The Normans And Their Warfare" ( []

* "10 Things You Should Know About The Scythians And Their Warfare" ( []

* "10 Surprising Things You Should Know About The Mongol Soldier" ( []

* "Khatt Shebib: The 93-Mile Long Ancient Wall System In Jordan That Still Baffles Researchers" ( []

* "World’s Second Oldest Biblical Text ‘Virtually Unwrapped’ From A Burned Scroll" ( []

* "Bible Was Possibly Written Earlier, As Suggested By (Very) Early 6th Century BC Level Of Literacy" ( []

* "8 Fascinating Facts About The Huns And Their Warfare" ( []

* "10 Intriguing Facts About The Achaemenid Persian Empire And Its Army" ( []

* "Researchers Claim That Many Fairy Tales Are Older Than Greek Myths And The Bible" ( []

* "Swedish Island Associated With Witchcraft Reveals Evidences Of Stone Age Rituals" ( []

* "Biblical King's Royal Seal Unearthed Near Temple Mount" (2015-12-03, [], photo caption: The seal of the Biblical King Hezekiah was recently unearthed on a trash heap. The seal shows a winged sun with two life symbols, called ankhs, on either side.

* "Ancient 'Wand' May Be Oldest Example of Lead Work in the Levant" (2015-12-04, [], with a single lead artifact found in a tomb dated to 4000 years BM

* "Paleo Campouts Depicted in Cave Etchings" (2015-12-02, []


The modern perception would attribute in the following painting a mixture of "ancient Roman" and contemporary fashions... showing yet again how perceptions of "ancient Rome" were influenced by the displays of the original researchers of "Ancient Rome" who pieced together piece-meal the history of all the "ancient" artifacts, increasing their age by 1000 years to a time "before Christian Rome"!
The following are catalogued and cited according to information from ([]:
* "Consul Gaius Popillius drawing a circle" by Lorenzo Lippi (Florence 1606-1665) []

* "The worship of the Golden Calf" by Claes Cornelisz. Moeyaert (Durgerdam, near Amsterdam 1591-1655 Amsterdam) []
* The wings of a triptych: Saint Christopher; and Saint James the Greater by Hans Memling (Seligenstadt 1430/40-1494 Bruges) []
- The Emperor Nero, bust-length, in a feigned, marble oval, by Sir Peter Paul Rubens (Siegen, Westphalia 1577-1640 Antwerp) [] indistinctly inscribed 'DOMITIANUS.NERO.6' (lower centre) oil on panel, the reverse stamped with the coat-of-arms of the City of Antwerp

More art from the same citation:
* Pagan motifs in "Christian Europe"
- "A reclining water nymph" by a Follower of Lucas Cranach I [], with Cranach's dragon-and-ring device and the date '1534' (lower left), inscribed 'FONTIS NYMPHA SACRI SOMNVM NE RVMPE QVIESCO.' (lower centre)
- "Wine is Venus's Milk" (by Nicolaes Knupfer, Leipzig 1609-1655 Utrecht) []
- "Diana and Callisto" by Hendrick Bloemaert (Utrecht 1601/2-1672) []

* Ancient Ruins
- An extensive landscape with a Bacchanal, architectural ruins beyond Cornelis van Poelenburgh (?Utrecht 1594/5-1667) []

* Scenes of life -
- "A wooded river landscape with boatmen" Jan van Goyen (Leiden 1596-1656 The Hague) []
- "Interior of the Oude Kerk, Delft" by Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet (Delft 1611/12-1675) []
- "A winter landscape with villagers on a frozen lake outside a town" 1681 by Thomas Heeremans (Haarlem 1641-1694), image []
- "A trompe l'oeil still life of a letter rack" Edwart Collier (Breda c. 1640-c. 1710 ?Leiden) []

Visions of Hell
- "The Temptation of Saint Anthony" by a Follower of Hieronymus Bosch []

Why are these paintings not known to the public? The best evidence is always in private hands []

The above from a listing of 1500s and 1600s paintings [], continue at "The Emperor Nero, bust-length"


* "The Nuremberg Chronicle (June 12 – December 23, 1493)" ( [] [begin excerpt]: "From the outset, however, a German-language version had been planned. Translated by Georg Alt (c. 1450-1510), the city treasurer of Nuremberg, who assisted Schedel in compiling the Latin edition, the German edition was published on December 23, 1493. In addition to cosmetic differences (e.g., the Latin edition was printed using a typeface known as Antiqua Rotunda, while the German employed Bastarda Schwabacher), the German edition is very slightly abridged, with omissions that include certain abstruse thoughts as well as seeming repetitions. Occasionally, however, the German Chronicle includes minor but telling expansions on the Latin text. For example, in the Latin version one is told that a certain idea "can be found in Ovid" (folio IIr); the German version, however, informs its readers that this same idea "was elegantly expressed by Ovid, a poet." Such differences point to slightly different readerships: the Latin was aimed at the imperial, theological, and academic markets; the German at the upper middle class who did not possess a university education. Scholars estimate that approximately 1400-1500 Latin copies and 700-1000 German ones were printed. " ( Link, accessed 11-06-2012). [...]
Though the information in the Nuremberg Chronicle was rapidly superceded, it remained famous for its extraordinary graphic design, its printing, its woodcuts and descriptions of cities. One of the woodcuts depicted the paper mill established in Nuremberg by Ulman StromerOffsite Link in 1390. Probably because it was such a large and impressive volume, the work was a great commercial success, with unusually large printings for a fifteenth century book:
"The Latin edition was printed in at least 1400 copies, of which more than 1200 still exist today" (Wagner, Als die Lettern laufen lernten. Medienwandel im 15. Jahrhundert [2009] no. 11 (describing the annotated copy of the author, Hartmann Schedel, which is preserved at the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek, Munich).
Most probably fewer copies of the German edition were printed, as it remains rarer on the market. Between roughly 1980 and 2009 there were 188 auction sales recorded for the Latin edition and 35 sales of the German edition, some sales presumably representing the same copies being resold.
In order to print and sell so many copies of an expensive book in the fifteenth century the printer Anton Koberger had to employ a geographically wide network of partners and sales agents.
"A revealing indication of the extent of Koberger's business is provided by a document of 1509, drawn up as a final settlement of the contract between partners involved in the production and sale of the Nuremberg Chronicle. This accounting reveals a network of outlets spread far and wide throughout Europe. We know that the Nuremberg Chronicle sold well, because there are at least 1,200 surviving copies logged in libraries today. But in 1509 there were still 600 copies unsold. For copies previously supplied debts were logged against the accounts of booksellers spread through the Germanic world: at Lübeck and Danzig, Passau and Vienna, Ingoldstadt, Augsburg and Munich. Linhard Tascher still had to settle for just over a hundred copies sent to him at Posen and Breslau (presumably for sale in Silesia); eighty-three Latin and twenty-eight German. A separate consignment of mostly Latin copies had been dispatched to Cracow. The Koberger agency in Lyon had to account for forty-one copies, and several hundred had been dispatched to agents in Italy, at Bologna, Florence and Genoa. Peter Vischer, the agent at Milan, had received the largest consignment for distribution in the peninsula, of which almost 200 remained unsold. The Venice agent, Anthoni Kolb, had just thirty-four left. Bearing in mind that these represent the unsold residue of what had been a very large edition, the geographical reach of Koberger's enterprise was every bit as impressive as the Venetian network of the previous decades. The bold confidence with which Koberger had taken on the Italian market was especially striking, even if transalpine demand for this masterpiece of German typography had ultimately not matched expectations" (Pettegree, The Book in the Renaissance [2010] 77-78). [end excerpt]

Nuremberg Chronicle: View of Rome [], from Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich

* "A capriccio of classical ruins with figures by the sarcophagus of Constantine, an obelisk (after) Giovanni Paolo Panini" [] []

Colosseum images []

Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista) Piranesi (Italian pronunciation: [dʒoˈvanni batˈtista piraˈnesi]; 4 October 1720 – 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" []

Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista) Piranesi

* "The Little Ice Age, Ca. 1300 - 1870" ( []

* "Long-term, Medium-Term, & Short-Term Climate Shifts" catalogue of information (updated 2016-04-01, by Ray Dickenson, [], including
- March 2012 Confirmation - `Medieval Warm Period' was a GLOBAL EVENT - w/world temps hotter than now []
- Feb. 2014 - Research - `Antarctic warmed just as speedily, 8,000 yrs ago []

* "The Two Bacons: The Scientist Monk, `Doctor Mirabilis' - Roger Bacon; The Scientist Baron, Lord Verulam - Francis Bacon" (updated 2016-09-18, []

* 1100s Cherkassy municipality as origin of Ukraine nationality [] alongside Jewish settlement [].

* "Humanist" Revolutions
- 1600s England []: Commonwealth of England [], Instrument of Government [], Agreement of the People [], New Model Army []
- 1700s Scotland []

* "Lost text of charred Old Testament scroll revealed by 3D ‘unwrapping’ " (2016-09-22, [] [begin excerpt]: Radiocarbon dating of the artifact suggests it dates back to the 3rd or 4th century AD, although some historians suspect it could be older (.pdf) [].
The Hebrew script has been found to be the oldest example of a Pentateuchal scroll outside of the 3rd-century BC Dead Sea Scrolls, and details of its restoration have been published in the Advancement of Science journal []. [...]
According to the team behind the salvage effort, the text contains no vowels and is identical to the “medieval” wording of the Hebrew Bible. The de-layering of the burned scroll is being heralded as a significant discovery in biblical archaeology.
“We were immediately struck by the fact that in these passages, the En-Gedi Leviticus scroll is identical in all of its details both regarding its letter and section division to what we call the Masoretic text, the authoritative Jewish text until today,” Dr Michael Segal, part of the project, told Australia’s ABC []. [end excerpt]
Photo caption: Partial transcription and translation of recovered text.


The origin of modern "Islam", and the renunciation of the older Saracen civilization...
* "Jaafari to Schiller Institute: ISIL Has Been There for Centuries" (2016-09-16, [] [begin excerpt]: These same Saudis were formed by what is called, commonly speaking, Wahhabism, which comes from the name of the founder of this school of thought, Mohammad Abdul Wahhab (1703-1792). Abdul Wahhab appeared all of a sudden in the Hijaz, the old name of Saudi Arabia, which is a fake name actually. Saudi Arabia is a fake name of the country, because “Saudi” means al-Saudi, the family of Saud; so it’s as if you were changing the name of your own country to be the United States of Obama. [laughter] So this family stole the name of the country and transformed this country to fit its radical agenda. That happened in the late 18th Century.
The funny part of the story is that this school of thought was facilitated, created, and endorsed by the British intelligence of that time. So the British intelligence facilitated the creation of this radical movement in Islam, on purpose of course,— you know the British, how they act. Nothing is for free.
In 1802, the followers of this crazy guy moved toward Karbala in Iraq. In Karbala, they attacked the shrines of the Shi’a Muslims, and in Damascus in 1810 they tried to invade the city, but the Syrians stopped them and defeated them at the walls of the city. Then they retreated and went back to where they came from.
I’m giving you this background to show you that this crazy movement is not a newcomer. It has been there for centuries, a couple of times protected by the British, then by the Americans. It is not because they like them, but it is because their craziness fits those foreign agendas.
Islam is not about Saudi Arabia. In Damascus, in the greatest mosque in Damascus, called the Umayyad Mosque, in the middle, in the heart of the mosque, which is also the biggest and greatest mosque in Syria,— we have the shrine of St. John the Baptist, inside the mosque. The tomb of St. John the Baptist is in the middle of the mosque, where Muslims as well as Christians visit the tomb, and say their prayers. [end excerpt]
- Photo caption: The shrine and tomb of John the Baptist, known as Yahya in the Koran. It is in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus and is visited by Christians and Muslims.
- Photo caption: The renovated mosque of of Muhammad Abdul Wahhab in Old Diriyyah, Saudi Arabia. Abdul Wahhab invented the strange version of Islam we know as Wahhabism and signed a pact of mutual loyalty with the Saud family in 1744. The British backed the Saud family from no later than 1788.


There already being related evidence showing the "Dark Ages" of the CAN of Egypt may not have happened in so much as these are aeons of history artificially reconstructed and expanded...
An "Ancient Egypt" producing artifacts through 1000 years BM would include technology reminiscent of all Mediterranean ships extant at that aeon. A mystery of the CAN of Egypt is how this 1st of all Mediterranean Cultures failed to leave any artifacts anywhere outside the few cities of the Nile river despite, according to the CAN of Egypt, this civilization had a head-start of thousands of years in technological advancements!
* "Ancient Egyptians used metal in wooden ships" (2016-08-31, [], photo caption: Metal pieces of the second solar boat of Pharaoh Khufu are seen at the restoration laboratory, located behind the Great Pyramid of Cheops on the Giza Plateau


* "Archaeologists discover evidence of ancient Christian community in Kazakhstan" (2016-08-05, [] [begin excerpt]: According to Tom Davis, the Archaeology Department Chairman at the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Texas, the discovery of the ancient city and gravestone are the first archaeological evidence that a there was a Christian community in Kazakhstan. Among their findings are eight Nestorian gravestones which prove the presence of Christianity before the era of Western imperialism arrived, The Astana Times details.
"This discovery supports the understanding of ancient Kazakhstan as a multicultural center between the East and West with Muslims, Buddhists, and Christians living among the local herdsmen and nomadic tribes," said Davis.
Two years ago, a local resident reported that an inscribed stone with a cross has been discovered but its original location was still unknown back then. The Archaeological Expertise, in cooperation with the seminary, found seven other inscribed gravestones outside the settlement.
The grave markers are inscribed with Nestorian-style crosses and two of them contain fragmentary inscriptions. Tandy Institute epigrapher Ryan Stokes has partially deciphered one of the inscriptions written in Old Syriac and found that the grave was marked with the date A.D. 1162. [end excerpt]
* "Evidence of Ancient Assyrian Church Discovered in Kazakhstan" (2016-09-30, []


* "The History of the Early Period of Buddhism and Bon in Tibet" (1996, Alexander Berzin) part 1 [], part 2 [], being excerpts from "The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire"

* "Timelines: 0001 - 1000" ( []
* "Timelines: 1001 - 1100" ( []
* "Timelines: 1101 - 1200" ( Not Finished
* "Timelines: 1201 - 1300" ( []
* "Timelines: 1301 - 1400" ( []
* "Timelines: 1401 - 1500" ( []
* "Timelines: 1501 - 1600" ( []
* "Timelines: 1701 - 1800" ( []:
1731-Johann Jakob Scheuchzer publishes Sacred Physics, a pictorial account of earth's history based on the Old Testament. Included is a description of what he believes is a fossilized victim of the biblical flood.

1735-Carl von Linné (better known as Linnaeus) publishes Systema Naturae, proposing the system of binomial nomenclature that will continue for over two centuries.

1740: South Carolina Slave Code - This infamous legislation regulated the use of slaves and became the model for slavery in other states, until repealed as an effect of the American Civil War. "All Negroes, Indians ... and all their offspring ... shall be and are hereby declared to be and remain forever hereafter slaves; and shall be deemed ... to be chattels personal in the hands of their owners."

1749-1817-During his lifetime, Abraham Gottlob Werner asserts that all rocks have been deposited by a primordial ocean. This mistaken "Neptunian" view is accepted with little question.

1751-Encyclopedists Diderot and d'Alembert publish the first volume of the Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of Sciences, Arts and Trades emphasizing a dispassionate presentation of factual information rather than reliance on age-old "wisdom".

1765 - Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England -This British barrister set about writing down the entire English law in a 4-volume set, in easy-to-read English, thus making the law suddenly accessible to the common man. His research also made the book a must-read for lawyers and law students alike. It was re-published many times. Through it, the English law was readily imported to the British colonies and in fact it is said that Blackstone's Commentaries was the law in the American colonies for the first century of American independence. The Commentaries also allows us to witness the exact state of British law at that time on such things as the total legal submission of a wife to her husband, as was then considered natural law.

1771-Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon publishes Les Epoques de la Nature, asserting that the earth is a staggering 75,000 years old and existed long before the arrival of humans or any other form of life.

1784-Historian and naturalist Cosimo Alessandro Collini publishes a description of the first known pterosaur.

1776-Abbé Jacques-François Dicquemare describes reptilian fossils in Journal de Physique but refrains from speculating about their sources.

1782 AD: Robert Aitken's Bible; The First English Language Bible (a King James Version without Apocrypha) to be Printed in America.

1787-Caspar Wistar and Timothy Matlack inform the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia that they have discovered a "giant's bone" in New Jersey. (The bone probably belongs to a dinosaur.)

1788-Juan-Bautista Bru mounts the first relatively accurate fossil reconstruction of an extinct animal from South America. Georges Cuvier classifies it as a giant sloth.

1791 AD: Isaac Collins and Isaiah Thomas Respectively Produce the First Family Bible and First Illustrated Bible Printed in America. Both were King James Versions, with All 80 Books.

1795-James Hutton overturns the "Neptunian" view of rock formation in his Theory of the Earth, suggesting instead that forces of rock creation are balanced by forces of rock destruction.

1799-Faujas publishes a description of the Maastricht animal, a spectacular Mosasaur found in chalk quarries in the Netherlands.

1799 - Charles White publishes An Account of the Regular Gradation in Man, and in Different Animals and Vegetables, a treatise on the great chain of being, showing people of color at the bottom of the human chain.

* "Timelines: 1801 - 1900" ( []
* "Timelines: 1901 - 2000" ( []

Racial theory -
* "An Account of the Regular Gradation in Man, and in different Animals and Vegetables, and from The Former to The Latter" (1799, by White, Charles, b.1728, d.1813; University of Glasgow) []


Monte Dei Paschi Di Siena, "world's oldest bank" b. 1400s in Italy [], photos [] []


When tracing the passage of "Ancient Roman" books into the modern Aeon (post-1600s AD), one might look into the passage and origin of the "Cooking and Dining in Imperial Rome" cookbook (500s AD, credited to Apicius) []
Also See: Roman-style Hamburger []


Jewish manuscripts 1160 years BM recovered at Silk Road junction within northern modern Republic of Afghanistan jurisdiction [], "Hebrew text predates earliest known copy of the Torah by four CENTURIES The prayer book contains rare text written in an archaic form of Hebrew It has 50 pages of Jewish blessings and has been dated back to 840 C.E This predates the earliest Torah scrolls ever found by around 400 years The book comes in its original binding with Babylonian vowel markings" [] [] [] []


* "From bes to Bitcoin: alternative currencies in the ancient Roman world" (2016-10-24, [] [begin excerpt]: In addition to these governmental currencies, there were other forms of money – gold, for example, likely acted as a form of money for large transactions. Other money-like objects have been found in many regions throughout the Roman world: thousands of small lead coin-like objects were found during building works in Rome in the 18th and 19th century, which are roughly the same size and bear similar designs to the smallest Roman coin – the quadrans, for example. Historians believe these must have acted as community or alternative currencies.
Alongside the denarius, there existed many forms of community currency that facilitated transactions at a local level and contributed to a local sense of community. The bronze coins of Carthage continued to be used as money in Roman Africa for more than 100 years after Rome conquered the region in the second century BC, and Ptolemaic coins were used in Egypt well after the Roman conquest as well. These coins would have provided small change for these communities, but meant that the imagery of old, now defeated powers was used in a new context and invested with new meaning. Roman coinage was even used as small change in Africa as late as the 19th century! [end excerpt]


* "Does Chinese Civilization Come From Ancient Egypt? A new study has energized a century-long debate at the heart of China's national identity" (2016-09-02, [] [begin excerpt]: The work that most captured their imagination was that of the French philologist, Albert Terrien de Lacouperie, who in 1892 published the Western Origin of the Early Chinese Civilization from 2300 B.C. to 200 A.D. Translated into Chinese in 1903, it compared the hexagrams of the Book of Changes with the cuneiform of Mesopotamia and proposed that Chinese civilization originated in Babylon. The Yellow Emperor was identified with a King Nakhunte, who supposedly led his people out of the Middle East and into the Central Plain of the Yellow River Valley around 2300 B.C. [end excerpt]
* "Western origin of the early Chinese civilisation from 2,300 B. C. to 200 A. D. : or, Chapters on the elements derived from the old civilisations of west Asia in the formation of the ancient Chinese culture" (1894, by Terrien de Lacouperie) []


* "Bizarre, Long-Headed Woman from Ancient Kingdom Revealed" (2016-06-21, []
* "In Images: An Ancient Long-headed Woman Reconstructed" (2016-06-21, []


A more recent end for "Celtic" culture, and the re-use of "ancient" materials.
* "Hellfire club: Dublin dig uncovers ancient artwork" (2016-11-04, [] [begin excerpt]: The Hellfire Club began life as a 18th Century hunting lodge but passed into folklore as a temple of intemperance for Dublin debauchery.
The lodge was built around 1725 for the powerful politician William Conolly, - Speaker of the Irish Parliament - who no doubt cut his construction costs by helping himself to the remnants of two nearby ancient passage tombs.
As bad luck would have it, Conolly died very soon after the building was completed. His widow then leased the lodge to a Dublin aristocrat, the Earl of Rosse. [end excerpt]


* "Huge ancient shipyard unearthed on Turkey’s Dana Island" (2016-10-20, [] [begin excerpt]: Academics believe that the huge shipyard, which includes nearly 270 slipways, could shed light on the 400-year “Dark Ages” of the Mediterranean over 1,000 years B.C. [...] “The reason why this era is called the ‘Dark Age’ is that we have limited archaeological information about a period of around 300-400 years. Most probably a big drought, earthquakes or epidemic disease occurred in the 13th century B.C. We can deduce this from the fact that Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II had to send ships full of grain from the Alexandria region, which is usually productive and suitable for agriculture. Ancient sources suggest there was a famine around this era,” Öniz said. [end excerpt]


* "Money, money, Money… Who’s the common denominator?" (2016-11-12, [] [begin excerpt]: The Uighurs used the money, called ‘Kumdu’ – seals printed on pieces of fabric – in the 11th century. Also in the northern Black Sea … the Suvar Turks put Ekin [fabric money] instead of paper, in the economy. The Bulgarians of Idil and the Khazars used leather money,” she said. [end excerpt]


* "Bunnies helped a great civilisation in ancient Mexico thrive" (2016-08-17, [] [begin excerpt]: The carbon within the rabbit bones gave another clue, says Andrew Somerville at the University of California in San Diego. Animals eating maize and other common Mexican crops like agave cactus tend to have higher levels of an isotope of carbon with an extra neutron.
Analysing the bones showed that up to 74 per cent of the animals’ diet came from human-grown foods rather than wild plants.
“This study does a great job of showing the innovations in this urban society for cultivating their own protein sources,” says Carballo. “It gives you a good idea of what regular folks were up to in this city.”
The rabbits could have served a few different uses, such as a source of meat and fur or ritual purposes, says Heather Lapham at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Michael Smith at Arizona State University in Tempe says we shouldn’t overestimate the importance of the meat, because the diet of beans and maize available at the time was already a complete protein source. “It’s not as if, ‘oh my gosh, they’re starving if they don’t get some rabbit meat.'” Still, the study gives more evidence that Teotihuacan had a highly organised economy with specialised workers, Smith says.
Palatial housing
The city’s tradespeople, like the rabbit butchers, were well off. Nearly everyone lived in large multifamily apartment buildings that would have matched royal palaces in other ancient cities. “I don’t know of any other ancient society where the bulk of the population lived in such luxury,” he says.
There’s also a conspicuous lack of royal tombs or paintings of powerful leaders amid the city’s abundant murals, says Carballo. This suggests that there were no kings; instead, government was probably a more collective affair.
It seems one of the ancient city’s traditions remains. “Some of the delicacies of the Teotihuacan valley today involve rabbit,” says Carballo. “It continues to be an important food for the area.” [end excerpt]


* "The Great Events by Famous Historians" (1905, The National Alumni), vol. 6, pg. 138, "Plunder of Constantinople", [begin excerpt]: In the years that followed the conquest Latin Priests were sent to Constantinople from France, Flanders, and Italy, to take charge of the churches in the city. These priests appear to have been great hunters after relics. Thus it came to pass that there was scarcely an important church or monastery in most Western countries which did not posses some share of the spoil which came from Constantinople.
For some years the demand for relics seemed to be insatiable, and caused fresh supplies to be forthcoming to an almost unlimited extent. The new relics, equally with the old, were certified in due form to be what they professed to be. Documents, duly attested and full of detailed evidence - sometimes doubtless, manufactured foe the occasion - easily satisfied those to whom it was of importance to possess certified relics, and throughout the West the demand for relics which might bring profit to their possessors continued to increase. At length the Church deemed it necessary to put a stop to the supply, and especially to that of the apocryphal and legendary acts which testified to their authenticity, and in 1215 the fourth Lateran council judged it necessary to make a decree enjoining the bishops to take means to prevent pilgrims from being deceived. [end excerpt]


* "Thanksgiving, the Pilgrims’ American Jewish Holiday How the biblical narrative of Exodus helped shape the founders’ idea of a secular nation with liberty for all" (2016-12-23, []
A month after the Continental Congress had drafted the Declaration of Independence, one of that document’s architects, Benjamin Franklin, sketched out a brief description of his design for the Great Seal of the new nation. Franklin wanted the Great Seal of the United States to feature, “Moses in the Dress of a High Priest standing on the Shore, and Extending his Hand Over the Sea, Thereby Causing the Same to Overwhelm Pharaoh.” He wrote that the seal should depict “Rays From a Pillar of Fire in the Clouds Reaching to Moses, to Express That He Acts by Command of the Deity.”
Of course, Franklin’s design was not the one that was chosen. Rather, the heraldry that was selected to adorn our currency and other official government documents was William Barton and Charles Thomson’s spooky all-seeing eye, with its incomplete pyramid, and its dignified eagle reassuringly holding olive branches in one talon but arrows in another. Barton and Thompson’s final version is a hodgepodge of seemingly occult and Masonic imagery that has acted as a boon to the fervency of creative-minded conspiracy theorists for the better part of two-and-a-half centuries. The official Great Seal of the United States of America may have made its first prominent appearance in 1784 at the negotiations that led to the ratification of the Treaty of Paris, but Franklin’s Exodus-inspired seal proposed eight years before is a telling artifact of a more revealing history.
Franklin’s suggestion wasn’t the only biblically inspired design for the Great Seal. Alongside an all-star assembly of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, the three constituted the first committee charged with designing the official heraldry of the new U.S. government. Jefferson’s proposal also took inspiration from the Hebrew scriptures, with the champion of separation of church and state nonetheless proposing that the Great Seal depict the Israelites in the wilderness, following their flight from Egypt but before their arrival in Canaan.
There is something surprising, or there should be something surprising, in Franklin and Jefferson’s proposals. Of the two founders, they are among the least conventionally religious, comfortable in heterodoxies (or heresies, for their critics), and both instrumental in the necessary development of American secularism and disestablishmentarianism (arguably the most unique, and crucial aspect of the American democratic experiment). And yet Jefferson, who would later remark that some central tenets of religion would “be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter,” wanted one of the most dramatic scenes from the Bible to officially represent his new, secular nation. Franklin, an unrepentant (if charming) drinker and womanizer, embodied a perhaps more accommodating and latitudinarian blasphemy; in adulthood, he was a committed Enlightenment rationalist and advocate for deism (even as he had a warm relationship with the famed evangelist George Whitfield). Ironically, it was only Adams, the most conventionally pious of the three men, who proposed a seal depicting a classical Greco-Roman subject: the judgment of Hercules.
Jefferson was a descendant of the Cavalier planter class that dominated in the Southern colonies, and he took a certain High Church affectation as his birth-right; but Franklin, though he was to adopt that nonconformist Philadelphia as his own (to the point where their identities became almost synonymous), was very much a product of that most Puritan of cities, Boston, and when read through that light, the embrace of this central story of the Jews should not be surprising. The Puritans from whom Franklin descended had been comparing their own arrival in the New World to the story of Exodus for more than a century. They were inheritors of a profoundly Judaic vision, melding the stories of the Hebrew scripture to their own narratives and experiences. While it would certainly be a mistake to in any way think of the Puritans as “Jewish,” their rhetorical sensibility and affinity for the Exodus story does specifically ground them in a particularly “Jewish” vision.
For the Puritans, Exodus was arguably a model for understanding their own lives and history in a manner more all-encompassing and totalizing than for any other historical religious group, with the obvious exception of the Jews. The Puritan divine, Richard Mather asked, “Is not the way to Canaan through the Wilderness? … Doubtless, through the wilderness you must go, if ever you will come to Canaan.” American Puritans and pilgrims like Mather, John Winthrop, John Cotton, William Bradford, Roger Williams, Increase Mather, Cotton Mather, Samuel Danforth, and many others placed Exodus at the center of their vision, seeing their own fleeing from an oppressive England and a Europe wracked by the Thirty Years’ War to an American “Errand Into the Wilderness” as a modern version of the Israelites’ escape into Canaan. Exodus was one of the most potent elements in the construction of what historian Sacvan Bercovitch called “the Puritan origins of the American self.” The Puritans made Exodus an organizing principle of their experience, and, in turn, it has become indispensable in comprehending the wider American experience. Through the Puritans, the story of Exodus became a motivating script for all manner of American stories.
Winthrop may have thought of Moses crossing the Red Sea when in 1630 he delivered his sermon “A Model of Christian Charity” upon the Arbella as it crossed the Atlantic, but this was merely the first of innumerable American enactments of the Exodus. We hear its echoes in gospel choirs singing the refrain in the Negro spiritual “Go down, Moses, / Way down in Egypt’s land, / Tell old Pharaoh, / ‘Let my people go.’ ” We read its significance and prophetic power in accounts of slaves who escaped the cruelty of antebellum plantation servitude, and who crossed the Ohio River as if it were the Red Sea, and who escaped across the Mason-Dixon line as if it were the deserts of the Negev. We see it in photographs of the oppressed escaping pogrom and persecution in the Old World, and in the stories of later generations of refugees. Exodus is an indispensably Jewish story, but what more appropriate day than Thanksgiving, this most American and Puritan (and “Jewish”?) of holidays, to consider the role that that particular biblical narrative has had in defining America’s civil religion?
Israeli historian Avihu Zakai makes a similar argument about Exodus and the Puritans in his indispensable 1992 monograph Exile and Kingdom: History and Apocalypse in the Puritan Migration to America (via []. Standing in a line of venerable historiographers of American Puritanism, Zakai claims that early American narratives of discovery and colonization were irrevocably marked by a certain scriptural understanding, and he develops a schema by which to classify these accounts. According to Zakai, European accounts of the New World can be broadly categorized as either narratives of the “Genesis type,” or the “Exodus type.” Both of these myths embody “important types of religious migration” which “emerged in sacred, providential history, which Europeans had greatly used in order to consecrate sacred meaning on the New World in providential history.”
In Zakai’s schema, the Genesis narrative is one which claims that God has made some portion of the world perfected for his chosen people where “he will appoint a place for them to dwell in upon earth”; the Exodus narrative, however, involves a “judgmental crisis and apocalyptic migration.” Both of these narratives have been central to American self-understanding; the Genesis type underlay much of the colonial discourses of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and indeed Cavalier Royalist-sympathizers who populated what would become the Southern United States. Advocates for New World colonization like Thomas Harriot, Walter Raleigh, and John Smith described America as a bountiful Eden, a land where the misfortunes of the biblical fall seem to have not happened — a description lacking in Puritan accounts of the rocky shoals of New England. In the imaginations of many Puritans, inheritors of a type of Protestant Hebraism and in some cases a self-understanding that could be described as Anglo-Israelism, they saw parallels between their own subjugation and that of the spurned and dejected Jews. Zakai explains that “For Puritan emigrants to America, the flight from England to New England symbolized in vivid and concrete terms their exodus from bondage in Egypt, or England, to the promised land of Canaan.”
As the Bible is arguably a collection of stories about migration and exile—Abraham leaving Ur, Moses leading his people out of Egypt, the Jews brought to Babylon—so too did the Puritans understand migration as central to their own theology of salvation and nationhood. John Cotton, perhaps the preeminent minister in the early Massachusetts Bay Colony, thinking of persecuted coreligionists in Europe, hoped that “here is then an eye of God that opened a door there, and set him loose here … [for] when God makes room for us, no binding here, and an open way there.” Magisterial Protestants may have seen the Puritans as “Judaizers” (and, indeed, Puritans returned the slur) but in one sense, the preoccupation with being a diasporic remnant is something shared between the two groups. Zakai writes that for the Puritans, within “the confines of sacred ecclesiastical history, religious migration holds a unique and prominent place.”
No wonder, then, that the Exodus tale of migration and of movement to a safe-haven is so central to American civil religion. The question of whether America was founded as a “Christian nation” is a boring one (spoiler: It wasn’t). Yet the interplay between religion and secularity is a complicated one. Nobody would accuse the Puritans of being anything other than theocrats, even if there is a golden thread connecting the nascent progressive secularism of someone like Roger Williams and the disestablishment clause of the First Amendment. But, American civil religion still strongly borrows from a scriptural idiom, and it’s incontrovertible that the Exodus story, birthed by Judaism, modified by the Puritans, and inherited by Americans of all races and creeds is perhaps the central founding myth of American pluralistic identity—in a new place, among a population who, as Winthrop explained, had in their home country been “despised, pointed at, hated of the world, made a byword, reviled, slandered, rebuked, made a gazing stock, called Puritans, nice fools, hypocrites, hare-brained fellows, rash, indiscreet, [and] vain-glorious.”
Certainly, the elementary school Thanksgiving pageant with its reductionist tale of pilgrims fleeing religious persecution is a bit too simple. But there is truth that until their emigration, they had suffered as a marginalized religious community in England. For them, the Exodus narrative reigned supreme as a means of organizing and interpreting colonists’ own lives. As Peter Bulkley, a prominent Puritan minister (and ancestor of Ralph Waldo Emerson) described it, “God hath dealt with us as with the people of Israel; we are brought out of a fat land into the wilderness.” Founder of Connecticut Thomas Hooker exclaimed that, “God makes account that New England shall be a refuge for his Noahs … a rock and a shelter for his righteous ones to run unto.” Their contemporary Williams, a Baptist and nonconformist who founded Rhode Island, drew the archetypal logic of the Exodus story with its defense of the stranger in a strange land to its ultimate and triumphant conclusion—that there must be liberty, both religious and otherwise, for everyone—all Christians, Jews, Muslims, and even atheists.
As the Puritans took Exodus and made it a map for understanding the oppression and progress of their own lives and souls, so too can we take their story and similarly refashion it in a more expansive understanding of nationhood, in which the radicalism of the concept that there can be a place of refuge still remains. Robert Cushman, who had been a deacon when the English Puritans lived in Leyden, Holland, and had followed his congregation to Plymouth, Massachusetts, declared that: "We are all, in all places, strangers and pilgrims, travelers and sojourners; most properly, having no dwelling but this earthen tabernacle. Our dwelling is but a wandering; and our abiding, but as a fleeting [a hastening away]; and, in a word, our home is nowhere but in the heavens; in that house not made with hands, whose maker and builder is God."
As that was a truth for the Jews, it was a truth for Cushman, and we must dedicate ourselves to the preservation of that truth as Americans.


* "The Speyer Wine Bottle: the oldest unopened bottle of wine in the world" (2016-11-23, [] [begin excerpt]: The Speyer Wine Bottle was first discovered in a Roman tomb in Germany, and is likely to contain a fair amount of wine, and was found in 1867 from the Rhineland-Palatine region of Germany, which is the oldest settlement in the region.
The artifact has since attracted the attention of historians and researchers and has attained the status of the world’s oldest existing bottle of wine.
The wine bottle dates back to between 325 and 359 AD, and was discovered during an excavation at a 4th-century tomb of a Roman nobleman. It is the oldest known wine bottle which remains unopened.
The Speyer Wine Bottle is housed in the Historical Museum of the Palatinate in Speyer and is always displayed at the same location in the Tower Room.
The bottle itself is of 1.5-liter volume and is a glass vessel with amphora-like sturdy shoulders, which are yellowish green in color with handles shaped in the form of dolphins. [...]
The tomb that produced the wine bottle also contained two sarcophagi; one holding the body of a woman and one a man.
There are a number of stories regarding the nature of the nobleman, one theory suggests that the man was a Roman Legionnaire and the wine bottle was one of his provisions for his ‘celestial’ journey, as it was the custom around the time he must have been buried. [end excerpt]


An article explaining a centralized bureaucracy imposing a new order and identity, successfully, during a 5 year period. This attempt is an example of how quickly a culture may be manipulated by central command.
* "Life in England under Oliver Cromwell" (posted 2015-03-17, [] [begin excerpt]:
Oliver Cromwell remains one of our most famous characters in history. From 1649 to 1653, Parliament ran England but from Cromwell’s point of view, it was not a system that worked effectively and England, as a nation was suffering. As a result, Cromwell, backed by the army, sent home MP’s and he became the effective leader of England from 1653 to 1658. [...]
Cromwell was a Puritan. He was a highly religious man who believed that everybody should lead their lives according to what was written in the Bible. The word “Puritan” means that followers had a pure soul and lived a good life. Cromwell believed that everybody else in England should follow his example.
One of the main beliefs of the Puritans was that if you worked hard, you would get to Heaven. Pointless enjoyment was frowned upon. Cromwell shut many inns and the theatres were all closed down. Most sports were banned. Boys caught playing football on a Sunday could be whipped as a punishment. Swearing was punished by a fine, though those who kept swearing could be sent to prison.
Sunday became a very special day under he Puritans. Most forms of work were banned. Women caught doing unnecessary work on the Holy Day could be put in the stocks. Simply going for a Sunday walk (unless it was to church) could lead to a hefty fine.
To keep the population’s mind on religion, instead of having feast days to celebrate the saints (as had been common in Medieval England), one day in every month was a fast day – you did not eat all day.
He divided up England into 11 areas; each one was governed by a major-general who was trusted by Cromwell. Most of these generals had been in Cromwell’s New Model Army. The law – essentially Cromwell’s law – was enforced by the use of soldiers.
Cromwell believed that women and girls should dress in a proper manner. Make-up was banned. Puritan leaders and soldiers would roam the streets of towns and scrub off any make-up found on unsuspecting women. Too colourful dresses were banned. A Puritan lady wore a long black dress that covered her almost from neck to toes. She wore a white apron and her hair was bunched up behind a white head-dress. Puritan men wore black clothes and short hair.
Cromwell banned Christmas as people would have known it then. By the C17th, Christmas had become a holiday of celebration and enjoyment – especially after the problems caused by the civil war. Cromwell wanted it returned to a religious celebration where people thought about the birth of Jesus rather than ate and drank too much. In London, soldiers were ordered to go round the streets and take, by force if necessary, food being cooked for a Christmas celebration. The smell of a goose being cooked could bring trouble. Traditional Christmas decorations like holly were banned. [...]
During his time as head of government, he made it his task to ‘tame’ the Irish. He sent an army there and despite promising to treat well those who surrendered to him, he slaughtered the people of Wexford and Drogheda who did surrender to his forces. He used terror to ‘tame’ the Irish. He ordered that all Irish children should be sent to the West Indies to work as slave labourers in the sugar plantations. He knew many would die out there – but dead children could not grow into adults and have more children. Cromwell left a dark stain on the history of Ireland. [end excerpt]
* "The Embleme of Englands distractions as also of her attained, and further expected Freedome, & Happines per H.M." popular lithograph (1658), held at the British Museum [], explanation of its images at "Emblem of the Month n. 004" (2015-10-04, by Valérie Hayaert, []


Oliver Cromwell, gold Broad of Twenty-Shillings 1656

William Oxman or Orsingham, preacher of an extreme religious sect who opposed Oliver Cromwell and his men. Preacher of the doctrines of the Fifth Monarchy Men, Seducer of Libertines, Captain of the seditious Anabaptists and Quaker. He was hanged and beheaded.

* Post-Cromwell agitation against the King [], including titles of books only available at the link.

* "Scottish soldiers in service of Gustavus Adolphus" (1631)

This lithograph displays "Celtic" styles, tartans or checkerboard, turbans(?).
The older soldiers are each looking with worry, dread or contempt at the young and proud rifleman.
More about Sweden King Gustavus Adolphus and his successful invasion of Germany against the Roman Empire [] during the "30 Years War", whereby capital destabilized the Catholic Roman Empire and funded continual war, opening the means of targeted assassination of the best among the targeted demographics.


* "Dig in Alsace yields intentionally deformed skull" (2013-11-03, [] [begin excerpt]: It’s the Merovingian (5th-8th century A.D.) finds that take my cake, however. In a necropolis containing 18 west-east burials, one woman was found buried with the richest grave goods. Gold pins kept a garment together over her chest and she had two chatelains, chains suspended from a belt that held practical objects for household use. The objects she carried where a silver mirror, beads of glass and amber [], a set of tweezers and an earscoop (a surprisingly popular device throughout the ages) for her emergency grooming needs. Also buried with her was a triangular comb [] made out deer antler decorated with geometric patterns that reminds me of that 3rd century Germanic one with the runes [].
The silver mirror is of a design common among the Alano-Sarmatian peoples who left their North Caucasus homelands heading west under pressure from invading Huns in the late 4th century and 5th centuries. What really identifies her as an Alan is her ovoid skull [], a result of intentional cranial deformation. The fashion for binding infants’ heads with straps or cradleboards to elongate and flatten their skulls wasn’t just a Mesoamerican phenomenon [], although they may be its most well-known proponents today. Intentional cranial deformation was used extensively in Europe, Asia and Africa as well. The Alan version of the practice used circular bandages wrapped around babies’ heads to flatten front and back of the skull with equal pressure. Here’s a facial reconstruction of a Hunnish woman with this kind of cranial deformation [].
This practice distinguished the elites and affirmed their social status. Similar graves, which are usually isolated, have been discovered in Northern Gaul, Germany and eastern Europe. They are accompanied by abundant grave goods. They thus appear to be the graves of high dignitaries and their families, of eastern origin, incorporated into the Roman army during the “great migrations”. The Obernai necropolis is one of the few large groups of discovered in France. It is the first evidence of the presence of an eastern community over a long period of time in Alsace at the end of the Roman Empire. [end excerpt]


Pyramids of China [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []


* "AMERICA, an EMPIRE in TWILIGHT Series" (2016, by Paul Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Gould) []

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Woo-woo stuff associated with pyrmaids, what is truth? []

CAN Chronology barrier []

NC []
see books in sidebar on right hand side []

NewChronology [] []
1751 atlas showing "ancient Arabia and India" []
Byzantine [] [] [] [] []
Old American maps []
Dinosaurs, and reduced gravity? [] [] [] [] []

* "The Book of Revelation" (1883, by Frederick Engels) []

"Real History World Wide" [] including "History of the Black Holy Roman Empire" and Black Britain
"Stewart Synopsis" []

* "The Ancient Megalith Archeology Coverup" []

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Is Aleppo Tel an artificially constructed mound (and/or partially constructed earthen pyramid)?
1910, The entrance to the citadel of Aleppo

2010 Aleppo Tel


from "Magic with the Mind?" []: Italy in 1572, we would find it very interesting to follow Girolamo Scotto around Europe. Scotto (aka Hieronymus Scotto) was a knight whose skills in diplomacy and negotiation made him indispensable to Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II, among others. What brings us to Scotto here is that in addition to being a negotiator, he was one of the great entertainers of his day, although he never performed for the general public. A hard day of thrashing out the details of some treaty with an Archduke would be followed by a lavish banquet, and there Scotto would himself perform what modern magicians would instantly recognize as a short routine of “close-up restaurant magic,” with cards, coins and common items on the dining tables.
After the dessert, Scotto stood again to perform what magician and magical historian Melbourne Christopher called “the first full mental-magic routine on record.” For the dazzled diners (one of whom, a court physician named Handsch, carefully recorded the feats in his diary, which is how— in the regrettable absence of a real Way-Back machine— we know of them today), the knight achieved incredible feats of apparent mindreading. The court chamberlain chose a book, opened it at random, and secretly selected any syllable in any word on the page. Scotto, standing nowhere near, spoke the syllable. Scotto left the banquet hall while the Archduke himself wrote whatever came into his mind on a piece of paper. When Scotto returned to the hall, he had his own sheet, on which was written precisely what the Archduke had written. Scotto continued with miracle after miracle, until the diners were shaking their heads in wonderment.
Magicians call the use of principles of sleight-of-hand and misdirection to achieve what appear to be supernatural abilities--- mind reading, knowledge of the future, knowledge of hidden objects--- by the name “mentalism.” The best-known modern mentalists, such as Max Maven, Glenn Falkenstein, Derren Brown, Mark Salem and Kreskin, still make use of many of the same basic sneaky tactics used by Girolamo Scotto more than 430 years ago.
Interestingly, although Scotto performed for audiences barely out of the Dark Ages, he was only once accused of sorcery. His accuser was a hysterical woman who had been detected in adultery, and who in testimony claimed that Scotto (despite the handicap of being hundreds of miles away at the time) had cast a spell to cause her to fall into the arms of a handsome knight named Ulrich. The court wisely ignored these charges and Scotto was not even called to testify.


The "Pfister Thesis":
* "The First Italian Tomato Recipes" [] [begin excerpt]: The tomato is perhaps the most emblematic of the foods characteristically associated with Italian cuisine. Anyone who has come in contact with Italy’s gastronomy knows the tomato is a fundamental and inalienable element of it. In reality, the tomato’s entry into the Italian pantry occurred relatively recently, as did its “matrimony” with another cornerstone of Italian cuisine, pasta.
Credit for penning the first tomato recipe in Italy goes to Vincenzo Corrado in the 18th century, nearly three centuries after Christopher Columbus’ first voyage to the new world. The tomato’s official debut in Italian cuisine was a rather timid entry, a simple but tasty preparation that at least provided a hint of the future that lay ahead for Italian cuisine. [end excerpt]

* "What did Italians eat before tomatoes were imported?" [] [begin excerpt]: The date that the tomato first traveled to Europe is not known. Some believe Columbus may have brought plants back, but many historians believe Cortez brought the first plants back to Europe in 1521. These tomato plants did not looked like our tomatoes today. They were yellow colored and about the size of a cherry tomato. They apparently quickly spread through the Mediterranean, because they appeared in an herbal guide in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattoli, an Italian botanist and physician, who called them Pomo d’oro (Golden Apple). He also mention of Italians eating these Golden Apples (with oil, salt & pepper), though many regions of Italy used them for decoration only.
At some point in the 16th century, the more familiar red variety was either developed through selective breeding or brought to Europe from Central/South America. One can assume that the popularity of this new red variety grew throughout the 17th century in the Mediterranean and Italy in particular, but recipes featuring tomatoes did not begin to show up in Italy until the late 17th century.  [end excerpt]


* "Ancient Japan 'more cosmopolitan' than thought: researchers" (2016-10-05, []: Ancient Japan may have been far more cosmopolitan than previously thought, archaeologists said Wednesday, pointing to fresh evidence of a Persian official working in the former capital Nara more than 1,000 years ago.
Present-day Iran and Japan were known to have had direct trade links since at least the 7th century, but new testing on a piece of wood—first discovered in the 1960s—suggest broader ties, the researchers said.
Infrared imaging revealed previously unreadable characters on the wood—a standard writing surface in Japan before paper—that named a Persian official living in the country.
The official worked at an academy where government officials were trained, said Akihiro Watanabe, a researcher at the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties.
The official may have been teaching mathematics, Watanabe added, pointing to ancient Iran's expertise in the subject.
"Although earlier studies have suggested there were exchanges with Persia as early as the 7th century, this is the first time a person as far away as Persia was known to have worked in Japan (during the period)," he said.
"And this suggests Nara was a cosmopolitan city where foreigners were treated equally."
Nara was the capital of Japan from around 710 AD to around 784 AD before it was moved to Kyoto and later present-day Tokyo.
The discovery comes after another team of researchers last month unearthed ancient Roman coins at the ruins of an old castle in Okinawa in southern Japan.
It was the first time coins from the once mighty empire have been discovered in Japan, thousands of kilometres from where they were likely minted.
Photo caption: A wood strip more than 1,000 years old that was excavated in Japan's former capital Nara names a Persian official living in the country

* "Archaeologists baffled as Roman coins discovered in ruins of Japanese castle" (2016-09-28, []:
The first-ever discovery of ancient Roman artifacts in Japan has perplexed archaeologists who are searching for answers as to how the coins ended up on Okinawa Island.
Uruma city’s board of education announced the discovery beneath the ruins of Katsuren Castle this week saying the coins are believed to date back to the the third or fourth century, Asahi reports [].
Archaeologists working on the site originally wondered if the coins were left there by tourists as a hoax but Toshio Tsukamoto, a researcher from the Gangoji Temple Cultural Properties Department, recognised the coins straight away.
"I'd come to analyze artifacts like Japanese samurai armor that had been found there when I spotted the coins," Tsukamoto, told CNN []. "I'd been on excavation sites in Egypt and Italy and had seen a lot of Roman coins before, so I recognized them immediately."
The coins have eroded over time leaving the designs very difficult to decipher, however X-ray analysis revealed an image of Constantine I, who ruled Rome from 324 to 337 AD, and a soldier holding a spear.
The age of the artifacts only deepens the mystery as the construction of Katsuren Castle, a UNESCO World Heritage site, didn't get underway until the 13th century.
Further excavations on the site uncovered six other coins which date back to the Ottoman Empire in the late 17th century.
Okinawa had a thriving trade with southeast Asia and China between the 14th and 16th centuries and Katsuren Castle was an important center of commerce during that time. The Uruma Board of Education described the coins as “precious historical material suggesting a link between Okinawa and the Western world,”The Japan Times reports [].
"It is a strange and interesting find. We don't think that there is a direct link between the Roman empire and Katsuren castle, but the discovery confirms how this region had trade relations with the rest of Asia," a spokesperson from the board of education said to CNN.
Photo caption: Archaeologists have been carrying out excavations at Katsuren castle since 2013.
Coin photos from []:

* "How did Roman coins end up in a medieval Japanese castle?" (2016-10-07, [] [begin excerpt]:
Links with Asia
There are plenty of Roman coins in southern India and Sri Lanka that are evidence of direct links with the Roman world, and direct trade with these areas is not in doubt. Some recent research indicates the possibility that merchants from the Roman world could have been present in South-East Asia from at least the 2nd century of our era (.pdf) [] [], although the evidence is suggestive rather than concrete – an apparent increase in Roman knowledge of the geography of the region from the 2nd century [] ; and the well-known story of a 2nd-century embassy (perhaps a group of merchants) travelling to China from Vietnam (.pdf) [].
So could the coins have been transmitted to Japan via South-East Asia? Archaeological evidence from the Isthmus of Kra on the Thai peninsula includes imported materials from Han China and the Roman empire, though these could have arrived indirectly through India. Gold pendants copying Roman gold coins were used in ancient Thailand and Vietnam, and a stone mould for casting such objects has been found in southern Thailand (.pdf) [].
These may have been inspired by genuine Roman coins and Indian imitations of Roman coins. However, they imitate Roman gold coins of the 1st and 2nd centuries – and none resembles any of the coins from Katsuren Castle. The only genuine Roman coin known so far from the peninsula is a 3rd–century coin of the Gallo-Roman usurper Victorinus (268-270AD) minted in Cologne in Germany, although another 3rd-century coin was reportedly found in Thailand in the 19th century (.pdf) []. Roman coins from the 3rd and 4th centuries have been reported from a site in Cambodia, yet there is an apparent absence of such coins in southern China, suggesting that such coins rarely made it beyond the Gulf of Thailand.
Silk Road
A few Roman coins, and imitations of them, have been found in China, where they were probably used as ornaments and as burial goods. Yet these too are usually made of gold – and most are later in date (5th to 7th centuries). The majority are concentrated in northern China, and likely entered along the overland route known as the Silk Road.
The fact that the Roman coins found at Katsuren Castle are small, 4th-century copper-alloy coins that were of low value in the Roman world, rather than high value silver or gold, is all the more puzzling. Such coins (and imitations of them) are found in India and Sri Lanka (.pdf) [], and at some sites in central Asia, but it is hard to see how they would have travelled on directly from such places to Japan, though indirectly via South-East Asia – and perhaps at a much later date – remains possible. [end excerpt]
Photo caption: Roman gold coins excavated in Pudukottai India dating from the era of Caligula and Nero

* "The Power of Images Coin Portraits of Roman Emperors on Jewellery Pendants in Early Southeast Asia" (.pdf) []
- Fig. 1. Cat. no. 1. From Óc Eo (southern Vietnam).

- Fig. 2. Cat. no. 4. From U Thong (central Thailand).

- Fig. 3. Cat. no. 3. From Óc Eo (southern Vietnam). Reproduced after Malleret 1962, pl. 40 with permission of the ‘École française d’Extrême- Orient

- Fig. 4. Cat. no. 2. From Óc Eo (southern Vietnam). Museum of Vietnamese History, Ho Chi Minh City, inv. 2182.

- Fig. 5. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum inv. 35.207. Aureus of Commodus, 192 C. E.

- Fig. 6. a Detail of Cat. no. 2 from Óc Eo; b Detail of Aureus of Commodus shown in fi g. 5.

- Fig. 7. Cat. no. 5. From Khlong Thom (southern Thailand). Suthiratana Foundation, inv. KLP 071.

- Fig. 8. Glasgow, The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery no. 112. Denarius of Antoninus Pius, 158–159 C. E.

- Fig. 9. Cat. no. 7. From Khlong Thom (southern Thailand). Suthiratana Foundation, no number.

- Fig. 10. Details of the suspension loop of the gold pendant from Khlong Thom shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 11. Cat. no. 6. From Khlong Thom (southern Thailand). Thaksin Folklore Museum of the Institute for Southern Thai Studies inv. 43110423, Thaksin University, Koh Yo, Songkhla Province.

Fig. 12. Ex Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Aureus of Antoninus Pius, 156 C. E.

Fig. 13. Cat. no. 9. From Khlong Thom (southern Thailand). Suthiratana Foundation, no number

Fig. 14. Cat. no. 8. From Khlong Thom (southern Thailand). Suthiratana Foundation, no number

Fig. 15. Clay pendants from Kondapur, Andhra Pradesh (southern India). Scale aprox. 1:1 (from Wheeler 1954: Plates 28 and 29).

Fig. 16. Cat. no. 10. Stone mould from Khlong Thom (southern Thailand), Wat Khlong Thom Museum


* "10 Most Famous Clock Towers In The World" (2015-02-09, [] [begin excerpt]:
- The Prague astronomical clock, Prague, Czech Republic – The astronomical clock is the main feature of the famous Old Town Square of Prague. Many tourists arrive to the square and wait to a round hour just to watch the famous moving figures of the beautiful clock. The medieval clock was first installed in the year 1410, making it one of the oldest astronomical clocks in the world and the oldest one still in use
- The Saviour Tower (Spasskaya Tower), Moscow, Russia – The Saviour Tower is located in the famous Red Square, close to Saint Basil’s Cathedral and is part of the Kremlin walls. The huge clock tower was designed in 1491 and first installed in 1625. Together with the Kremlin, the Red Square and the famous cathedral, this small area holds Moscow’s best attractions
- The Zytglogge Tower, Bern, Switzerland – This beautiful medieval tower was built in the 13th century, and since served as a guard tower, a prison, a clock tower, and as a memorial. The clock we see today is an astronomical clock from the 15th century. This cultural UNESCO heritage site is perhaps the most popular tourist attraction in Bern
[end excerpt]

* "Clock tower" (retrieved 2016-12-13, [] [begin excerpt]: 
The use of clock towers dates back to the antiquity. The earliest clock tower was the Tower of the Winds in Athens [] which featured eight sundials. In its interior, there was also a water clock (or clepsydra), driven by water coming down from the Acropolis.[1] 
In Song China, an astronomical clock tower was designed by Su Song and erected at Kaifeng in 1088, featuring a liquid escapement mechanism. 
In England, a clock was put up in a clock tower, the medieval precursor to Big Ben, at Westminster, in 1288;[2][3] and in 1292 a clock was put up in Canterbury Cathedral.[2] 
The oldest surviving turret clock formerly part of a clock tower in Europe is the Salisbury cathedral clock, completed in 1306; and another clock put up at St. Albans, in 1326, 'showed various astronomical phenomena'.[2] [...]
Al-Jazari constructed an elaborate clock and described it in his Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 []. It was about 3.3 metres (11 feet) high, and had multiple functions alongside timekeeping. It included a display of the zodiac and the solar and lunar paths, and a pointer in the shape of the crescent moon which travelled across the top of a gateway, moved by a hidden cart and causing automatic doors to open, each revealing a mannequin, every hour.[4][5] It was possible to re-program the length of day and night daily in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year, and it also featured five robotic musicians who automatically play music when moved by levers operated by a hidden camshaft attached to a water wheel. Other components of the castle clock included a main reservoir with a float, a float chamber and flow regulator, plate and valve trough, two pulleys, crescent disc displaying the zodiac, and two falcon automata dropping balls into vases. [end excerpt]
1. Joseph V. Noble; Derek J. de Solla Price: The Water Clock in the Tower of the Winds, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 72, No. 4 (1968), pp. 345-355 (353)
2. Clocks, Encyclopaedia Britannica 5, 835 (1951).
3.  Frederick Tupper, Jr., 'Anglo-Saxon Dæg-Mæl', Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1895), p. 130, citing Archæologia, v, 416.
4. Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 184. University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-78149-0.
5.  Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, p. 64-69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering Archived December 25, 2007, [])

Presumably the first depiction of a medieval central European clock tower (without the actual turret clock) in the 13th century by Villard de Honnecourt, entitled:"cest li masons don orologe" ("this is the house of a clock") []:

* "World's most unique Kremlin tower clock celebrates 600 years" (2006-12-01, [] [begin excerpt]: 
Monk Lazar Serbin from Afon made the first clock mechanism and mounted it in the Moscow Kremlin in December 1404. [...]
Igor Ganswindr from the Russian Academy of Sciences Center for Geoinformation says the tower clock made by Monk Lazar survived many fires and restorations. It was mysteriously discovered a year ago. In 1624, some merchants from Yaroslavl bought a clock that served its time on the Spasskaya Tower and restored it. It became a real scientific sensation when researchers supposed that the chimes of the Spassky monastery in Yaroslavl were probably the rarity clock made in the epoch when Monk Lazar lived. However, this fact is not yet determined for certain. 
The first bells were made for the chimes in 1624. The face of the clock was divided into twelve hours under Peter the Great. Earlier, it was divided into 24 hours. [end excerpt]

* "Cathedral Clock Made for the Tower in Salisbury Cathedral, Oldest Known Mechanical Timekeeper" []: Cathedral clock made for the tower in Salisbury Cathedral, 1386, English School, (14th century) / Salisbury Cathedral, Wiltshire, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library

* "Mysteries of the Unknown: Time and Space" (1990, pg. 108; Time-Life Books) []: Completed in 1518, the soaring clock tower of Antwerp Cathedral stands as a monument to the evolving time-consciousness of the era. Although the earliest public clocks merely tolled the hours, later models such as this also displayed the time on a dial. 


* (
- Historical overview []
- Aula regia []
- Saal church []
- Saal well []
- North wing []
- Charlemagne‘s bath []
- Heidesheim gate []
- Semicircular building []
- Health spa []
- Fortifications []
- Zuckerberg gate []
- Fortified tower Bolander []
- Archaeological protective building []
- Jewish cemetery []
- Saal mill []
- Water-transport system [] [begin excerpt]: Old sagas mention a brick-lined canal or channel running from the “Karlsquellen“ (Charlemagne‘s well) in the south of Heidesheim to the Kaiserpfalz. For a long time this was regarded as Roman, due to its size and construction, but recent excavations have been able to date it quite definitely in the early Middle Ages. [ ... ] This watering system in Ingelheim is a unique technical monument, impressively confirming the traditional engineering feats from the days of ancient Romans to the early Middle Ages. [end excerpt]

* "Imperial Palace: Ingelheim am Rhein" (by, retrieved 2016-12-14, [], coin of Emperor Charlemagne []:
Built in around 785 AD by Charlemagne, the palace was used as an imperial residence until 1375. The large Carolingian building with its aula regia assembly hall and exedra modelled on a classical design was completed in the 10th century with the construction of a church. It was converted into a fortified imperial castle in around 1160 by Emperor Friedrich I, Barbarossa. Demolished and rebuilt a number of times since the 14th century, the imperial palace has witnessed a number of significant historical events, such as the meeting between Emperor Friedrich I, known as Barbarossa, and Hildegard von Bingen in 1163. The part of town known as the Saalgebiet, or Saal area, contains a number of beautifully preserved highlights, including the aula regia assembly hall, the Saalkirche church and parts of the defence wall. Charlemagne's throne room was uncovered during archaeological excavations (1994-2000) and is now open to the public. An archaeological shelter and a section of the defence wall (which can be climbed) are also accessible. Historical walk (signposted). Visitor centre and museum at the imperial palace with an exhibition on the palace itself and a computer presentation. Prized exhibits include the magnificent gold coin depicting Charlemagne.
Visitor Centre and Museum at the Imperial Palace
The museum has exhibits from the earliest days of Ingelheim's history. The tour leads from prehistory and early history through to Roman times and the early Middle Ages. Naturally, the main attraction is the palace erected in Ingelheim by Charlemagne at the end of the 8th century. The highlight on display here is the magnificent gold coin depicting Charlemagne.


* "In Supremo Militantis Ecclesiæ" (2016-12-05, [], photo [], caption: Venezianische Zecchine, im Avers übergibt der heilige Markus ein Banner an den Dogen, im Revers Christus in der Mandorla (Venecian Zecchine, in the reverse, St. Mark gives a banner to the Doge, in the reverse Christ in the Mandorla)


* "Five myths about the Nativity" (2016-12-20, Washington Post newspaper) [] [begin excerpt]: As late as the 3rd century, Christians didn't celebrate the birth of Jesus. The earliest discussion of the birthday is found in the 3rd-century writings of Clement of Alexandria, who raises seven potential dates - none of which correspond to Dec. 25.
The first record of a celebration of the birth of Jesus on Dec. 25 comes from a 4th-century edition of a Roman almanac known as the Philokalia. Alongside the deaths of martyrs, it notes that on Dec. 25, "Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judea."
Some have argued that the date of Jesus' birth was selected to supplant pagan festivals that were held at the same time. But while Pope Julius I set the date of Christmas (for Western Christians) in the 4th century, Christians did not deliberately adapt pagan rituals until the 7th century, when Pope Gregory the Great instructed bishops to celebrate saints' feast days on the days of pagan festivals.
The real reason for the selection of Dec. 25 seems to have been that it is exactly nine months after March 25, the traditional date of Jesus' crucifixion (which can be inferred from other dates given in the New Testament). As Christians developed the theological idea that Jesus was conceived and crucified on the same date, they set the date of his birth nine months later. [end excerpt]

* "Hanukkah - The Jewish Festival of Lights" (retrieved 2016-12-20, [] [begin excerpt]:
The Story behind Hanukkah
About 200 BCE/BC Israel was a state in the Seleucid Empire (an empire ruled under Greek law) and under the overall charge of the King of Syria. However, they could follow their own religion and its practises. In 171 BCE/BC, There was a new King called Antiochus IV, who also called himself Antiochus Epiphanes which means 'Antiochus the visible god'. Antiochus wanted all the empire to follow Greek ways of life and the Greek religion with all its gods. Some of the Jews wanted to be more Greek, but most wanted to stay Jewish.
The brother of the Jewish high priest wanted to be more Greek, so he bribed Antiochus so he would be come the new High Priest instead of his brother and then he had his brother killed! Three years later another man bribed Antiochus even more to let him become the High Priest! To pay his bribe he stole some of the objects made of gold that were used in the Jewish Temple.
On his way home from having to retreat from a battle, Antiochus stopped in Jerusalem and he let out all his anger on the city and the Jewish people. He ordered houses to be burned down and tens of thousands of Jews were killed or put into slavery. Antiochus then went to attack the Jewish Temple, the most important building in Israel to Jews. The Syrian soldiers took all the treasures out of the temple and on 15 Kislev 168 BCE/BC Antiochus put up a status of the Greek god Zeus in the center of the Jewish Temple (but it had the face of Antiochus!). Then on 25 Kislev he desecrated the most holy place in the temple and destroyed the Jewish holy scrolls.
Antiochus then banned practising the Jewish faith & religion (if you were found out you and all your family were killed) and made the Temple into a shrine to Zeus. There were many Jews killed for their faith. Soon afterwards a Jewish rebellion started.
It began when a 'former' Jewish Priest, called Mattathias, was forced to make an offering to Zeus in his village. He refused to do so and killed a Syrian Soldier! Mattathias's sons joined him and killed the other soldiers in the village. Mattathias was an old man and died soon after this, but his son Judah then took charge of the freedom fighters. Judah's nickname was 'Maccabee' which come from the Hebrew word for hammer. He and his troops lived in caves and fought an undercover war for three years. They then met the Syrians in open battle and defeated them.
When they got back to Jerusalem, the Temple was in ruins and the statue of Zeus/Antiochus was still standing. They cleaned the Temple. They rebuilt the Jewish altar and on 25 Kislev 165 BCE/BC, exactly three years after the statue was put up, the altar and Temple was rededicated to God.
There are several theories about why Hanukkah is celebrated over eight nights. One legend says that when Judah and his followers went into the Temple there was only enough oil to burn for one night, but that it burned for eight nights. Another story says that they found eight iron spears and put candles of them and used them for lighting in the Temple.
Hanukkah and Christmas
The dates of Hanukkah and Christmas might well be associated because 25 Kislev was when the Temple was rededicated and the early Church chose December 25th because they took over the birthday of Greek god Zeus/Roman god Jupiter. [end excerpt]


* (from Mr. Steven Avery):
Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov, with material used later by Fomenko, pointed out that Sinaiticus is not the ancient manuscript that was claimed by Tischendorf and those following his claims. We had some of his writing translated here:
- "Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov handles Sinaiticus, notes the Tischendorf antiquity claims are false" (forum thread via [].
- And there is a general view of material here: Codex Sinaiticus Authenticity Research ( [].
Whether Sinaiticus is simply an oddball anomaly among manuscripts, or the tip of the iceberg of uncial authenticity questions, an interesting question. Our group is not taking any stance in support of New Chronology, we simply want the truth of the Sinaiticus issue to be properly sought, and Morozov's scientific inquiry on this issue, as a polymath, was spot-on.

* "Sinaiticus - authentic antiquity or modern? the white parchment, the medieval Hermas and Barnabas, anomalies galore, the Simonides puzzles" forum threads [], including [] [] [] []

* "The Sinaiticus Smoking Gun?" (2016-09-26, by David Daniels) []
Vlog 188: Who really wrote Sinaiticus? Where? When? See who agrees with the evidence. God bless you all! – David W. Daniels
in 1844 Constantin Tischendorf claims he found 86 sheets of vellum, in a wastepaper bin to be burned, at St. Catherine’s monastery in the Egyptian peninsula. Then he claims that by 1859 he got hold of what it came from: a huge codex he called Sinaiticus, with parts of the Old Testament, all of the New Testament, plus the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. In 1862 he published the Codex Sinaiticus, and it became the game changer in Biblical criticism. It was paired with Vaticanus and its unusual readings. And suddenly, almost all Bibles to this day were changed away from the historical, traditional text to the modern form. But there was a cost: faith was replaced with doubt.
In 1862, Constantine Simonides, who had sold documents to Tischendorf before, claimed that Tischendorf had made a huge mistake. The so-called “Sinaiticus” was actually a project that he himself had done, 20 years earlier, as a gift for the Czar. Of course, Tischendorf was outraged.
I have shown over time that both of them lied about various things. So can we find out who was telling the truth, if anyone, and what the real facts are about the Codex Sinaiticus? This video may give you the smoking gun facts that influence your decision.

* " 'Chrestos' in the Codex Sinaiticus: The smoking gun" []:
The earliest secular document recording the existence of Chrestians has this to say....
- from (Tacitus, Annals, 116 AD, book 15, chapter 44): "...Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Chrestians by the populace. Chrestus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus,..."

Christian apologists like to believe that "Chrestians" and "Chrestus" in the above text are just insignificant mispellings. But the earliest copy of the Bible in existence, the Codex Sinaiticus, also refers to the followers of Jesus as "Chrestians".
- from "What does the name 'Christian' mean?" ( []: "As to the ancient manuscripts, they all have the word in all three places and their testimony is identical – with one critical exception. The best and earliest codex of all, Sinaiticus, has instead of Christianoi (Xristianoi/), Chrestianoi (Xrhstianoi/) – and it has this reading in all three places where the word occurs. Therefore it is impossible, in spite of the Nestle-Aland tentative suggestion for Acts 26:28, for it to be an itacism (i.e., a popular misspelling based on third/fourth century shifts in pronunciation, something of which this manuscript is, it is true, replete). For one thing, I find no parallel for changing a long "i" (iota) to a long "e" (eta) in this manuscript (and the unusual spelling would not have happened three times by mistake). Equally interesting is the fact that in all three cases, the right vertical stroke and the horizontal stroke of the ETA have been erased to produce an IOTA (yielding the traditional spelling). This is very unusual. Sinaiticus was corrected many times, and each generation of correctors had their own discernible "tics". But simple erasure without further comment seems to be unprecedented. Moreover, the empty space left by the erasure is, in all three cases, not filled up. This shows that without any question the scribe of Sinaiticus deliberately meant to write "Chrestian" in all three instances; it was not a mistake. The plot thickens when we consider that two of the earliest secular references to Christianity, Tacitus, Annales 15.4, where Tacitus talks about the Christians being persecuted by Nero as "Chrestians", and Suetonius, Claudius 25, referring to Claudius' expulsion of the Jews mentions a certain "Chrestus" as responsible, we find precisely the spellings one would predict if these authors (or their sources) were deriving their information from the same tradition which the spelling of Sinaiticus suggests."

The two titles "Chrestus" or "Chrestian" are referred to in the following written sources: Tertullian (AD 210), The Eighth Sibyl (AD 200), Theophilos of Antioch (AD 170), Marcus (AD 145), Apocalypse of Elijah (AD 100), Suetonius (AD 124) and Tacitus (AD 116). There is even a disputed inscription (now lost) from Pompei (AD 79) that is believed to have contained a reference to this lost title of Jesus.
Again, Christians like to play off the spelling of "Chrestus" as an insignificant misunderstanding on the part of pagan Romans. But "Chrestus" appears in the earliest Bible we have so "Chrestus" cannot be an early pagan Roman misunderstanding. "Chrestus" is the word early "Christians" (Chrestians) used to refer to their god.
Why is this important?
- from ( []: "Firstly the hero of Marcion's Bible was called Isu Chrestos - not Jesus. An important point here is you don't see 'Jesus Christ' in second century texts. So in the Bible of Marcion of Sinope 'Isu Chrestos' appears instead of 'Christ' and 'Jesus'. Also in the archaeological fragments mentioned earlier the scribes used the letters 'IS' wherever Jesus Christ now appears. The inscription 'Isu Chrestos' can still be seen on the oldest surviving Christian 'Synagogue' in Syria."

Marcion's Jesus appeared full grown on earth during the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius. Marcion's Jesus had no human family and only appeared to be a human being. Marcion's Jesus only "appeared" to be crucified. Marcion's Jesus only appeared to die. Marcion's Jesus only appeared to be resurrected. Marcion's Jesus was a god totally separate from the evil Yahweh, whom Marcion referred to as the "demi-urge".
The earliest date we have for Marcion is Polycarp's comment that Marcion was teaching in 115 AD. But use of the word "Chrestus" precedes Marcion by 65 to 75 years. It would seem, therefore, that the above set of dogma was the original set of orthodox beliefs. How else can we explain the widespread popularity of Marcionism just 23 years after 115 AD, the date Polycarp was willing to admit Marcion arrived on the scene?
Writing in 138 AD, Justin Martyr said that Marcionites could be found in "every nation." Could someone just make up a theological system in his head and 23 years later threaten the primacy of the supposedly established orthodoxy of Catholicism? Marcion must have piggy-backed off of a pre-existing theology, the dogma accompanying belief in Chrestus, the god of the Chrestians as long ago as 40 AD...just seven years after the alleged crucifixion of Christ and a good two decades before Paul arrived in Rome.
- from "THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD "CHRISTIAN" " (by Craig M. Lyons, []: "Nobody knows how the Church of Rome was established. Neither the Book of Acts nor the writings of the early Fathers explain how Christianity arrived in Rome. As has been discovered, Suetonius, the Roman historian, mentions the expulsion of followers of Chrestus from Rome, during the time of Emperor Claudius c. AD 40-50. This indicates that a flourishing Christian community existed in Rome, even before Paul went to Corinth or Ephesus in AD 49. By the time of Nero (AD 54-68), the Christian community in Rome was already of a considerable size."

Long before Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, ever went to Rome we find in that city a belief in "Chrestus". Chrestus was the god of Marcion
How did "Christianity" reach Rome at that very early date and before Paul?
Could this "Chrestianity" referred to by Suetonius be something other than what we have come to understand as Christianity today?
Could "Chrestianity" represent the original orthodoxy of what we now call Christianity?

- From "Marcion Heretic or Christian? Possible Progenitor of Three Famous Christian Communities: Baptists, Catholics, Gnostics" (2001, by Ray Embry) (via []: "According to Clement of Alexandria, Marcion preceded in time all the great Gnostic masters: "those that invented the heresies" (The Miscellanies, Book 7, ch. 17. 106f.). That educated scholar from Alexandria (Clement) represents Marcion as an "elder" predecessor to two early Gnostic teachers, Valentinus and Basilides. Another heresiarch, Simon Magus, who is often portrayed as the grand father of Gnosticism, also is described by Clement as succeeding Marcion. "This statement of Clement appears to make Marcion an old man while (Basilides and) Valentinus were still young, and to put Simon Magus posterior to them all in time" (Robert Smith Wilson. Marcion: A Study of a Second-Century Heretic. James Clarke and Co. Ltd. 1932. p. 56). Clement's chronological data is not being so readily dismissed today, and Marcion's career is being dated to an earlier time than before (Marcion: On the Restitution of Christianity - An Essay on the Development of Radical Paulinist Theology in the Second Century. R. Joseph Hoffmann. Scholars Press 1984)."

It would seem that the earliest expression of what we call "Christianity" was not what we know it to be today. It would appear that once the Catholics gained supremacy, the earliest orthodoxy was repainted as heresy and the heresy of Catholicism was declared to be the original orthodoxy.
Later Christian scribes literally erased the "e" from "Chrestus" and "Chrestianos" and replaced it with an "i". And, as we know, later editions of the Bible replaced "Chrestus" with "Christus" and "Chrestianos" with "Christianos".
But, as we have seen, the Catholic church failed to cover all of it's tracks. And now we know why. The Catholics sought to erase all evidence of the original god of Christianity, Chrestos, the God of Marcion.
TL;DR If Christians are going to give weight to Tacitus as a historical source and say he is correct and knows what he’s talking about…especially if they are going to say he got his info from authentic governmental documents…then Christians have to also accept that the theology found in Marcionism came before the theology found in Catholic orthodoxy. This is because "Chrestos" is the god of the Marcionites and "Christos" is the god of the Catholics.

* "Marcion's Galatians" (by Frank Reitzenstein, [] [begin excerpt]:
Discussion -
What can be seen by comparing Marcion's Galatians, modern Galatians and the 5th Century Latin Greek New Testament I bought from the Vatican for $100 is as follows:
- The modern version is like this: "On the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, just as Peter to the circumcised for the one who worked in Peter for an apostolate to the circumcised worked also in me for the Gentiles, and when they recognized the grace bestowed upon me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars, gave me and Barnabas their right hands in partnership, that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised."
- Marcion reads like this: "But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel was committed unto me; And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me the right hands of fellowship; that I should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision."

Did Marcion use the Razor or did Constantine Interpolate?
Comparison of Marcion's text with the modern text shows that the modern Bible has this extra bit:
to the uncircumcised, just as Peter to the circumcised for the one who worked in Peter for an apostolate to the circumcised worked also in me for the Gentiles, and when they recognized the grace bestowed upon me.

Conclusion -
Examination of the above images shows that the extra part is also the only place where Peter is used in the 5th Century text. Elsewhere Cephas is used. That suggests that this section was added later by a different author. This is excellent evidence to support that Marcion's text was indeed the original.
[end excerpt]

* "Marcion" ( []:
Marcion wrote the first canon of the New Testament in AD 140. For centuries Marcion has been maligned as a heretic, since the Church Fathers like Tertullian accused him of taking the razor to the Bible and cutting out several of the Pauline epistles; Acts, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus. In addition the only Gospel in Marcion's Bible is two thirds of Luke. Actually that's it. One Gospel and ten Pauline epistles, which means no Revelations and no Old Testament.
Christians like to tell us that Marcion changed the Bible to suit his theology. However it appeared to me from the beginning that before Marcion there was no documented history of Christianity as we know it. So for example there are no reliable historical contemporary accounts of Paul, Peter, Luke, Mark or even the Jesus that we think of today. Likewise archaeological New Testament fragments have been dated starting around 190 AD, again consistent with the first New Testament being written 140 AD.
In addition Bible scholars who actually question things have come to the conclusion that some of the Pauline epistles were added later than whoever wrote the first ones. Their conclusions are consistent with Marcion's Bible being the original text.

Isu Chrestos -
Even more important than the fact that Marcion's Bible was very short are the number of radical political differences between Marcion's Bible and our modern day Bible. Firstly the hero of Marcion's Bible was called Isu Chrestos - not Jesus. An important point here is you don't see "Jesus Christ" in second century texts. So in the Bible of Marcion of Sinope "Isu Chrestos" appears instead of "Christ" and "Jesus". Also in the archaeological fragments mentioned earlier the scribes used the letters "IS" wherever Jesus Christ now appears. The inscription "Isu Chrestos" can still be seen on the oldest surviving Christian "Synagogue" in Syria.
The next difference is that Isu Chrestos was a ghost. The first three chapters of Luke where "Jesus" was born are missing. When you think about it they are missing in two of the synoptic Gospels too. There were no Gospels of Luke, Mark, Matthew or John in the second century. There was only "Euangelion" - the "Good News" of Marcion's single Gospel.
The fact is that Paul spoke of "my gospel" singular and warned us of other gospels. Read Marcion. It all takes on a whole new meaning!

Marcion's Dualism -
It was important for the Marcionites that Isu Chrestos was a ghost. They believed that the world (and our bodies) were created by Jehovah, and that the world which Jehovah had created, his Angels and Archangels and the Mosaic law were a spiritual pitfall to be avoided. There weren't really any fallen angels in Marcion's theology. All angels were fallen, which is reasonably consistent with Gnostic teachings about the Divine Mother. Marcion does recognise the Divine Mother by the way (but not Mary - who makes no appearance).
Galatians was Marcions most important book. Marcion's Galatians 4:24-26 states (4:24): Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth by the Law to the Synagogue of the Jews to bondage. The other gendereth higher than all Principalities, Virtues, Powers; even higher than any Lady ever named; not only in this Aeon but in the following one also, 4:26 which is the mother of us all."
Note: Most of the Marcion Bible was reconstructed simply by removing verses. Sections like the above, where verses needed to be rewritten are less common.
You are no doubt familiar with the following quote from the Bible. As you can see after reading the above example, it is original Marcionite text warning against Angels and Archangels: "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places."
I believe also that is why Satan became the devil. He wasn't really a demon in the context of the Old Testament. But after Marcion, someone demonized him, and we can thank Marcion for making that possible through his association with Jehovah. It is important to note however that there is no serious reference in Marcion's Pauline text to the Devil and Hell as in Revelations. There is a brief mention to Gehenna in Euangelion (ie. Luke) as follows (12:5): "But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into Gehenna; yea, I say unto you, Fear him."
Regarding Lucifer it could also be argued that Christian demology does not have firm roots in Judaism. Lucifer makes one appearance in the Old Testament ie. Isaiah (14:12): "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!"
The English translation of the original Hebrew text reads a little differently: "How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, that didst cast lots over the nations!"
Verse 9 also refers to Hell, but the Hebrew text talks of the nether-world. More importantly Lucifer is not mentioned. The day-star may refer to Venus, and some scholars think that it refers to a Babylonian king. In any case it is a single reference amongst the entire Jewish scriptures, and not much to base a Lucifer myth on.
However that is not to say that Babylonian religion, worshipping Ishtar (Venus) and involving child sacrifice has not been with us from the time this text was written to the present. In fact it would not be unreasonable to assume that the authors of some of the New Testament texts (like Revelations) had a vested interest in replacing the names of the gods worshipped in real life "Satanic" practices and using Satan and Lucifer as a smokescreen. However the information found in the Old Testament still accurately describes the deities involved in the depraved occult activities of today. These were described in the Old Testament as Baal or Beelzebub (the sun god), Astoreth or Ishtar (Venus) and Molech.
The Marcionites believed that the God of Isu Chrestos was a higher God than Jehovah, and that consequently Isu Chrestos could not incarnate in human form. In contrast our souls were created by the God of Isu Chrestos. The Marcionites practiced a life of vegetarianism, celibacy and constant prayer. They believed that people that shunned the world in this way were free from the Mosaic Law which binds us. They believed that marriage was fornication.

Marcion and the Old Testament -
When you read Marcion's Bible you will see that there are none of the references to the Old Testament Prophets, to Christianity being a new dispensation of Judaism, to Angels, Archangels and the Law of Moses. That is apart from those which are used as an example. Even the account of the Transfiguration where "Jesus" spoke to Moses and Elias, was placed very carefully by Marcion in order to point out their inferiority. It is actually through the later interpolations that Judaism and Christianity were entwined. This is not the case in Marcion's text. It is much simpler to read, and the meaning is much clearer.
Of course, if you don't know this already, the Old Testament pointers to Christianity like "A virgin shall conceive" and "They pierced my hands and my feet" simply aren't in the Jewish books from which the Old Testament was taken. This is very strange when you consider that otherwise the texts are very close.
So for example in the Old Testament we find in Isaiah 7-14: "Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel."
However let's have a look at an English translation of the Hebrew Prophets. It is the original text isn't it? Why do Christians never mention this?
"Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel."
Let's have a look at the supposed reference to the crucifixion in Psalm 22-16. In the Old Testament it says: "For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet."
Now compare this with Writings Psalm 22-17 translated from the original Hebrew: "For dogs have encompassed me; a company of evil-doers have inclosed me; like a lion, they are at my hands and my feet."
Notice how in the original Jewish text they parted his garments and casts lots. But guess what? None of that is mentioned in Marcion's Euangelion. See how they did it?

Conclusion -
Books like the Torah and Marcion's eleven books were modified and cross referenced to create one religion - Judaeo-Christianity. However when the Jewish books and Marcion's books are read in the original they have nothing in common at all.
Most likely this was done partly or wholly because of the numerous religions in the Roman empire which were it's greatest threat to stability.


* "The Tale of the Partridge Manuscript" [], concerning the act of acceptance of "ancient manuscripts"... during the 20th century.


* "Why the Terrorist Who Destroyed Palmyra Won’t Face Justice" (2016-09-29, [], photo [], caption: The rubble of a destroyed mausoleum in Timbuktu, Mali


The origin of the Roman Empire was the increase in population at the mercantile centers, the increase in people who participate in a legal structure that excluded non-members.

Of course, there is an origin for White people, 6000 years BM
* "Modern Europe's Genetic History Starts in Stone Age Scientists create the first detailed genetic history of modern Europe" (2013-04-25, [] [begin excerpt]: DNA recovered from ancient skeletons reveals that the genetic makeup of modern Europe was established around 4,500 B.C. in the mid-Neolithic—or 6,500 years ago—and not by the first farmers who arrived in the area around 7,500 years ago or by earlier hunter-gatherer groups. (Read about Europe's oldest known town [].)
"The genetics show that something around that point caused the genetic signatures of previous populations to disappear," said Alan Cooper, director of the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA at the University of Adelaide, where the research was performed.
"However, we don't know what happened or why, and [the mid-Neolithic] has not been previously identified as [a time] of major change," he said.
Furthermore, the origins of the mid-Neolithic populations that did form the basis of modern Europe are also unknown.
"This population moves in around 4,000 to 5,000 [B.C.], but where it came from remains a mystery, as we can't see anything like it in the areas surrounding Europe," Cooper said. [end excerpt]
* "7,000-Year-Old Human Bones Suggest New Date for Light-Skin Gene" (2014-01-26, []
* "How Europeans evolved white skin" (2015-04-02, []
* "6 Scientific Theories and Facts About the Origin of Europeans That Contradicts the White Supremacy Narrative" (2015-04-09, page 1 [], page 2 [], page 3 []

* "National Geographic Proves Teaching on Mr. Yakub" (2013-05-23, [], and simplified [] []
* "Echoes of Mr. Yakub after Patmos" (2012-06-28, []
* "Myth or High Science? - The Honeybee, Yakub, and the term 'Grafting' " (2010-11-03, []
* "Myth or high science? Is there evidence of Mr. Yakub?" (2010-10-24, []


* "Daqin" ( [] [begin excerpt]:
Daqin (Chinese: 大秦; pinyin: Dàqín; Wade–Giles: Ta4-ch'in2; alternative transliterations include Tachin, Tai-Ch'in) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire or, depending on context, the Near East, especially Syria.[1] It literally means "great Qin"; Qin (Chinese: 秦; pinyin: Qín; Wade–Giles: Ch'in2) being the name of the founding dynasty of the Chinese Empire. Historian John Foster defined it as "the Roman Empire, or rather that part of it which alone was known to the Chinese, Syria".[2] Its basic facets such as laws, customs, dress, and currency were explained in Chinese sources. Its medieval incarnation was described in histories during the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD) onwards as Fulin (Chinese: 拂菻; pinyin: Fúlǐn), which Friedrich Hirth and other scholars have identified as the Byzantine Empire.[3] Daqin was also commonly associated with the Syriac-speaking Nestorian Christians who lived in China during the Tang dynasty.
Chinese sources describe several ancient Roman embassies arriving in China, beginning in 166 AD and lasting into the 3rd century. These early embassies were said to arrive by a maritime route via the South China Sea in the Chinese province of Jiaozhi (now northern Vietnam). Archaeological evidence such as Roman coins points to the presence of Roman commercial activity in Southeast Asia. Later recorded embassies arriving from the Byzantine Empire, lasting from the 7th to 11th centuries, ostensibly took an overland route following the Silk Road, alongside other Europeans in Medieval China. Byzantine Greeks are recorded as being present in the court of Kublai Khan (1260–1294), the Mongol ruler of the Yuan dynasty in Khanbaliq (Beijing), while the Hongwu Emperor (r. 1368–1398), founder of the Ming dynasty, sent a letter of correspondence to Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos. [...]
In later eras, starting in AD 550, as Syriac Christians settled along the Silk Road and founded mission churches, Daqin or Tai-Ch'in is also used to refer to these Christian populations rather than to Rome or the Roman church.[1] So, for example, when the Taoist Emperor Wuzong of Tang closed Christian monasteries in the mid-9th century, the imperial edict commanded:[13]
As for the Tai-Ch'in (Syrian Christian) and Muh-hu (Zoroastrian) forms of worship, since Buddhism has already been cast out, these heresies alone must not be allowed to survive.[14]
The name "Daqin" for Rome was used on Chinese maps as late as the 16th century, such as the Sihai Huayi Zongtu. The identification of "Daqin" with the Western Roman Empire, Eastern Roman Empire, or the Church of the East varies with the era and context of the document. The Nestorian Stele erected in 781 in the Tang capital Chang'an contains an inscription that briefly summarizes the knowledge about Daqin in the Chinese histories written up to that point and notes how only the "luminous" religion (i.e. Christianity) was practiced there.[3]
Capital cities
To the Chinese, the capital of Daqin was "An-tu", or Antioch, the first great Christian city.[15] However, the Old Book of Tang and New Book of Tang, which identified Daqin and "Fulin" (拂菻; i.e. the Byzantine Empire) as the same countries, noted a different capital city (Constantinople), one that had walls of "enormous height" and was eventually besieged by the commander "Mo-yi" (Chinese: 摩拽伐之; Pinyin: Mó zhuāi fá zhī) of the Da shi (大食; i.e. the Arabs).[3] Friedrich Hirth identifies this commander as Muawiyah I, who was first governor of Syria before becoming caliph and founder of the Umayyad Caliphate.[3] The city of Rome itself does not appear to have been described. [end excerpt]
- image caption: The Nestorian Stele entitled "Stele to the propagation in China of the luminous religion of Daqin" (大秦景教流行中國碑), was erected in China in 781.


* a modern concept of a Renaissance-era marble archway, from "The Art of Della Robbia: From Earth and Water, Pure Beauty" (2016-08-18, []


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