Saturday, December 30, 2000

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* "Biblical Literatire - Slavic Versions" (retrieved 2020-07-06, []

* " 'Inconsequential Pandemic?': Scientists Question Deadly Impact of Legendary Dark Ages Plague; The scientists argue that the evidence they've examined gives them no reason to believe that the Plague of Justinian killed tens of millions of people "as many have claimed" " (2019-12-03, []


* "Ancient Greek Military Technology" (by Michael Lahanas) []
* "Archimedes and his Burning Mirrors" (by Michael Lahanas) []
STREPSiADES Have you ever seen a beautiful, transparent stone at the druggists', with which you may kindle fire?
SOCRATES You mean a crystal lens.
STREPSiADES That's right. Well, now if i placed myself with this stone in the sun and a long way off from the clerk, while he was writing out the conviction, i could make all the wax, upon which the words were written, melt.
Aristophanes 420 BC, THE CLOUDS
The Burning mirrors are mentioned by Lucian of Samosata and Galen. Anthemius of Tralles (474-534), the Architect of the Hagia Sophia, tells us that Archimedes used many mirrors. Johannes Zonaras in 1118 says that first Archimedes used the "Iron Hand" against the ships and then he burned these with mirrors.
Proclus used a similar method in 514 against the ships of Vitellius. Fire was emitted from the mirrors that looked like a flash. Johannes Tzetzes says that hexagonal mirrors were used. Zonaras and Tzetzes used sources from Cassius Dio and Diodorus Siculus. Girolamo Cardano discussed the possibility of using spherical mirrors for ships in 1.5 km distance. Cardano proposed a mirror with only 1/60 of the total spherical perimeter that still is around 300 m!
The Greek historian Lucian has recorded that during the siege of Syracuse, Archimedes constructed a "burning glass" to set the Roman warships afire. [end excerpt]

* "902AD Manuscript Located" (by Hazel Elizabeth, Arab Times) []
A rare Arabic manuscript from AD 902, a translation of a Greek manuscript on the code of research of burning mirrors, has been located in the Tareq Rajab Museum, a researcher said on Tuesday.
Professor Roshdi Rashid revealed that he recently discovered the manuscript during a lecture titled "Burning Mirrors: An example of the Application of Greek and Arabic Geometry" in a fifth cultural season organised by the Dar AI Athar AI Islamiyyah.
Director of Research at the University of Paris, Rashid is also the recipient of a KFAS award for Islamic Sciences.
  The manuscript outlined an important application of geometry that developed by the 10th century to a new concept of anaclastics or dioptrics, Rashid said.
"There is none so old," said Rashid, although an identical copy to the manuscript in Kuwait, that was made in Cairo in the 14th century, exists in India.
The manuscript is of a reference in Greek to burning mirrors, one of many in a library built up by Kings and Caliphs during the 9th century, who had discovered how to set light to objects 30 cubits away and wanted to meet a challenge to set light to objects 100 cubits away.
Rashid discovered the manuscript while on a quest to delve "as deeply as possible into history, in order to find the earliest applications of geometry and to understand their significance."
"Burning mirrors became an important subject of research in Alexandria during the third and the second centuries B.C. (Conon of Alexandria, Archimedes, Dosithcus, Apollonitis)," Rashed said.
The manuscript is an Arabic translation of Greek works, since lost, that established the fruit of two projects he researched; the theory of conic sections and catoptrics (on which Archimedes wrote a book between 125 and 180).
Archimedes established two great traditions of optics, Rashid said. Firstly he researched burning, a branch of mathematics at that time, and secondly he studied parabola and hyperbola connected to optics.
"With the linkage of the two domains, it was possible to answer the question of burning at a certain distance by reflection of sun rays," Rashed said.
Apollonius continued to write on conic sections after the death of Archimedes in 212, Rashid said.
Having established this invention confirmed a legend that burning mirrors were used to set fire to a Roman fleet who seiged Syracuse in the 6th century.
At the beginning of the ninth century, scientists who were not content with their Greek and Byzantine predecessors looked anew at the problem of convergence of reflected rays to a single point and the distance of this point.
Rashed said the philosopher and mathematician, Abu Ishaq Yusuf AI Kindi, is one of the most important figures in this field.
"The work of AI Kindi was pursued by many others, and now, thanks to the new materials accumulated, a surprisingly rich intellectual and scientific context is beginning to take shape," Rashed said.
One century later scientists extended their focus on burning mirrors to burning instruments as a whole: "geometric investigations of the focal points associated with near and far sources, not only of elliptic and parabolic mirrors."
Rashed said in 985 this led to a totally new and unsuspected development of planoconvexe and equiconvexe lenses. A new chapter devoted to anaclastics or diopties was then born, he said.
"This chapter, with the linkage of two domains  optics and especially theory of refraction, and theory of conics was developed by al 'Ala' ibn Sahl and his successors: Ibn AlHaytham in particular, Rashid said.
The Greek legacy on Burning Mirrors was twice transformed during the 9th to 10th centuries, from the works of AI Kinch on elliptic and parabolic mirrors to the concepts by Ibn Sahl on anaclastics or dioptrics.
Ibn Sahl advanced the study of lenses thanks to the use of conics, Rashid said.
Given a beam of light rays from a given source ibn Sahl experimented to determine by which combination of refractive surfaces he could transform it into a pencil of rays under certain conditions, for example if the rays be parallel or converge toward a point.
The lectures have been organised by the Ministry of Information Islamic Art Museum. They are held at the Abdullah Al Salem School Theatre, the AI Maidan Centre, behind Shaab Leisure Park in Maidan Hawalli every Monday evening.
- Images [] [] [] [] []

* "Ancient Greek Artillery Technology from Catapults to the Architronio Canon Michael Lahanas) [] [begin excerpt]: The Steam Canon of Archimedes
The catapult development started in Sicily with the Greek tyrant Dionysios I providing the financial means required for the experiments that were necessary to find the optimal design. Except in Sicily , Rhodes and Alexandria were the main centers of the development of the catapult technology, in Alexandria advanced by the support of the Greek Ptolemaic kings of Egypt. In the end of the first century AD the Roman engineer Sextus Frontinus wrote in Strategemeta that the war devices have reached their [physical] limits a long time ago and there is no hope for improvements.
There were unique devices produced by Archimedes such as a catapult that used steam power and in principle was a canon. It was described by Cicero in a manuscript discovered in a church library by Francisco Petrarch (1304 -1374) []. Petrarch collected Greek and Roman manuscripts neglected in various libraries for many centuries: His remark: "Each famous author of antiquity whom I recover places a new offence and another cause of dishonor to the charge of earlier generations, who, not satisfied with their own disgraceful barrenness, permitted the fruit of other minds, and the writings that their ancestors had produced by toil and application, to perish through insufferable neglect. Although they had nothing of their own to hand down to those who were to come after, they robbed posterity of its ancestral heritage"
Leonardo's quotations from books and his lists of titles supply nothing more than a hint as to his occasional literary studies or recreations. It was evidently no part of his ambition to be deeply read and he more than once expressly states that he did not recognise the authority of the Ancients, on scientific questions, which in his day was held paramount. Archimedes is the sole exception, and Leonardo frankly owns his admiration for the illustrious Greek to whose genius his own was so much akin. The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci: "Architronito e una macchina di fino rame, invenzlon d' Archimede."

The Cicero manuscript later was used by Leonardo Da Vinci who called the device "Architronito" in honour of Archimedes. He produced only drawings of the steam gun but Ioannis Sakas, a Greek expert of the work of Archimedes used this information to build a test device in 12.5.1981. A vessel was heated and when it reached 400 degrees Celsius 6 g of water was enough to produce in 10 seconds steam that expanding could throw a tennis ball size stone 50 meters. The reconstructed Archimedes steam gun by Sakas was only 1/5 the size of the original.
A Greek newspaper reported 3 days later about the result of the experiment of Sakas. From another Greek website the numbers which are given for the original is that it was able to shoot a 23 kg stone in 1100 meters and it was invented by Archimedes probably around 213 BC one year before his death. The Greek expert Evangelos Stamatis provided even a better performance estimate: 1.2 km for a 36 kg object. As Cicero reports Archimedes experimented with various devices to be used against the Romans (See for example the burning Mirrors). If and how the device was used by the Greek Syracuseans in practice and why such a device was not used or developed further by the Romans is unknown. [end excerpt]
Archimedes Canon, Leonardo Da Vinci:

* "Francesco Petrarch" ( [] [begin excerpt]: Petrarch was born in Arezzo the son of a notary, and spent his early childhood in the village of Incisa, near Florence. His father, Ser Petracco, had been exiled from Florence in 1302 (along with Dante) by the Black Guelphs. Petrarch spent much of his early life at Avignon and nearby Carpentras, where his family moved to follow Pope Clement V who moved there in 1309 during the papal schism. He studied at Montpelier (1316-20) and Bologna (1320-26), where his father insisted he study the law. However, Petrarch was primarily interested in writing and Latin literature.
When his father died in 1326, Petrarch returned to Avignon, where he worked in numerous different clerical offices. This work gave him much time to devote to his writing. With his first large scale work, Africa; an epic in Latin about the great Roman general Scipio Africanus; Petrarch emerged as a European celebrity. In 1341 he was crowned poet laureate in Rome, the first man since antiquity to be given this honor. He traveled widely in Europe and served as an ambassador. He was a prolific letter writer, and counted Giovanni Boccaccio among his notable friends. During his travels, he collected crumbling Latin manuscripts and was a prime mover in the recovery of knowledge from writers of Rome and Greece. Among other accomplishments, he commissioned the first Latin translation of Homer and personally discovered a collection of Cicero's letters not previously known to have existed. He remarked, "Each famous author of antiquity whom I recover places a new offence and another cause of dishonor to the charge of earlier generations, who, not satisfied with their own disgraceful barrenness, permitted the fruit of other minds, and the writings that their ancestors had produced by toil and application, to perish through insufferable neglect. Although they had nothing of their own to hand down to those who were to come after, they robbed posterity of its ancestral heritage." Disdaining the ignorance of the era in which he lived, Petrarch created the concept of the Dark Ages. [end excerpt]

Persian King Khosrow II and his Nestorian wife Shirin, 614AD, invade "Byzantine" New Rome and return to Persia with Holy Relics! [], also see map, "Extent of the Nestorian Church (Church of the East) based in Persia in the Middle Ages"

Transposition and Equivalence: Comparing Key Symbols in the Bahei Faith and Syriac Christianity
DISSERTATION PROPOSAL by Christopher Buck (1993):
Roughly speaking, early Christianity may be categorically divided into its Eastern (Greek), Western (Latin), and Oriental (Syriac) culture areas. In the fourth and fifth centuries, Syriac was the third international language of the early church (F. Young, "Syriac — A Tool for the Student of Early Christian Doctrine", in Horizons in Semitic Studios; ed. J. H. Eaton; Birmingham, 1980; pgs. 39-58). Considered the greatest Christian poet in late antiquity, and the true father of Syriac literature, there is scarcely a more universal nor unique Christian figure than Ephrem the Syrian. In Catholicism, Ephrem has been canonized as a saint.
The pristine form of Syriac Christianity flourished in the period prior to the fateful Orthodox, Nestorian and Monophysite schisms in which Greek Christological concepts were debated. Syriac Christian imagery and typology, however, were never in dispute.
Syriac as a language of liturgy survives in the Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), Syrian Catholic, Maronite, Chaldean and Nestorian Churches. To some extent today, the hymns of Ephrem are living in these traditions. The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (East Syrian: Assyrian: Nestorian) uses a service-book called the Ithadrd (lit., "Cycle"), or book of "propers" used throughout each Sunday of the year (footnote 22:). It is the largest of the Nestorian liturgies. Most of the Madrashe, or doctrinal hymns, are ascribed to Ephrem (footnote 23). Certain of the Syriac Hymns of Praise (tishbkhatha) found in the Khudra are also attributed to Ephrem (footnote 24:). Mar Ephrem himself is remembered in memorial prayers (footnote 25:).
- footnote 22: Systematized by the Nestorian Catholicos Ishu yabh (Jesusyahb) III, in the mid-seventh century. The three-volume liturgy I was shown, based on a manuscript dated A.D. 1598 copied in Iran, was published in India, in a modern Syriac vernacular (Trichur: Mar Narsai Press, 1961-2). Specimens of Sassanian Persian are preserved in the hymns "On Epiphany" and the "Vigil of the Night". Personal communication. Bishop Mar Emmanuel, Toronto.
- footnote 23: This is according to Bishop Mar Emmanuel, who presides over the Assyrian Church of Canada. The present writer has not been able to verify this information. Neither have I been able to ascertain whether the hymns attributed to Ephrem are considered authentic by scholarly consensus.
- footnote 24: Vide A. J. MacLean, "Hymns (Syriac Christian)", in Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics 7, 12-16. Cf. P. Verghese, "East Syrian Worship", in A Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship (1972).
- footnote 25: Khtudra, Vol. I, 761-79. See Mar Aphrem, Nestorian Theology (Trichur. Mar Narsai Press, 1980) 27, n. 4.
- footnote 26: Cf. A Nestorian Collection of Christological Texts: Cambridge University Library MS. Oriental 1319 (ed/tr. L. Abramowski and A. Goodman; Cambridge University Press, 1972) II, 130-33.

"Pfister Thesis"
* "The Codex Amiatinus: the Earliest Surviving Complete Bible in the Latin Vulgate, Containing One of the Earliest Surviving Images of Bookbindings and a Bookcase (Circa 688 – 716)" (2014-08-24, [], photo caption: Folio 5r of Codex Amiatinus, showing Ezra.

* "Bible half a meter thick returns to England for first time in 1300 years" (2017-12-03, [] [begin excerpt]:
A bible half a meter thick and made from the skin of 500 animals is to return to England where it was first made for the first time in 1300 years, the British Library told Xinhua on Saturday.
The bible, known as the Codex Amiatinus, was created by monks in northern England in the early part of the eighth century and then taken as a gift to the pope in what is now Italy.
It has remained there ever since, for more than 1,000 years in a monastery and since the 18th century in a library in the northern Italian city of Florence.
The bible, bound in leather and containing all the books of the bible written on the hides of sheep and cows, known as vellum, is set to return to be the centerpiece of an exhibition at the British Library in London.
"It is the earliest complete manuscript of the bible in latin," Dr Claire Breay, head of medieval literature at the British Library told Xinhua on Saturday.
It was made in Northumbria in northern England in the eighth century, as the abbot of the monastery at Wearmouth-Jarrow commissioned three giant bibles, said Breay.
The bible was written out in hand, letter by letter by a team of monks who would have labored for months over the task under the leadership of head abbot Ceolfrith. As a consequence few bibles were ever produced and the ravages of time mean that even fewer are left.
Bound copies of the whole bible were very rare because it was huge. "They produced these three giant bibles. One has been completely lost, one a few leaves survive which we have in the British Library and the other survived intact in Italy," said Breay.
The bible is written not on paper but on vellum, the hides of cows and sheep stretched and processed. This is durable and hard-wearing but also much bulkier than paper, meaning that the leather bound bible stands half a meter high and weighs 34 kg. [end excerpt]
* "Codex Amiatinus bible returns to England for first time in 1300 years" (2017-12-03, [] [begin excerpt]: The bible, known as the Codex Amiatinus, was created by monks in northern England in the early part of the eighth century and then taken as a gift for The Pope in what is now Italy.
It has remained there ever since - more than 1,000 years - first in a monastery and then, since the 18th century, in a library in the northern Italian city of Florence. [end excerpt]

* "How we discovered three poisonous books in our university library" (2018-06-27, []
* "MEDIEVAL POSTERS" (2015-09-04, []

* "Unprecedented exhibit of PH art at SF’s Asian Art Museum" (2017-07-31, [], image caption: Saint Isidore the Farmer and worshippers in a field, approx. 1750-1800 Philippines
. Oil on wood panel.

* "On a forgotten kingdom" (by B. Lukács, [], about the centuries of a Roman Empire in southern Africa named the Kingdom of Congo.
[begin excerpt]: But from the very beginning the Hungarian Kings diversified the foreign relations. Themonasteries come mostly from France, the Bishops mainly from France & Italy; some are Hungarian, and other nationalities, including Germans, are in minority. As for politics, in 997 Grand Duke Vajk (=Stephen I) puts down Pretender Koppány. His troops consist of Magyar light cavalry and German knights. Just before the decisive battle the young Grand Duke is knighted by the leader of the German troops! However these Germans are the German knights of the Grand Duke of Hungary, they have lands got from the Grand Duke, and they apparently do not have strong ties with the Empire anymore. After half a century theis sons & grandsons will valiantly give battle to the invading Imperial Army (and will win). [end excerpt]

*photo, from " ‘Similar to Nazi looting’: Russian minister blasts Netherlands’ Scythian gold ruling" (2017-11-16, []

* "Vikings were never the pure-bred master race white supremacists like to portray" (2017-09-28, [] [begin excerpt]:
The word “Viking” entered the Modern English language in 1807, at a time of growing nationalism and empire building. In the decades that followed, enduring stereotypes about Vikings developed, such as wearing horned helmets and belonging to a society where only men wielded high status.
During the 19th century, Vikings were praised as prototypes and ancestor figures for European colonists. The idea took root of a Germanic master race, fed by crude scientific theories and nurtured by Nazi ideology in the 1930s. These theories have long been debunked, although the notion of the ethnic purity of the Vikings still seems to have popular appeal – and it is embraced by white supremacists.
In contemporary culture, the word Viking is generally synonymous with Scandinavians from the ninth to the 11th centuries. We often hear terms such as “Viking blood”, “Viking DNA” and “Viking ancestors” – but the medieval term meant something quite different to modern usage. Instead it defined an activity: “Going a-Viking”. Akin to the modern word pirate, Vikings were defined by their mobility and this did not include the bulk of the Scandinavian population who stayed at home.
While the modern word Viking came to light in an era of nationalism, the ninth century – when Viking raids ranged beyond the boundaries of modern Europe – was different. The modern nation states of Denmark, Norway and Sweden were still undergoing formation. Local and familial identity were more prized than national allegiances. The terms used to describe Vikings by contemporaries: “wicing”, “rus”, “magi”, “gennti”, “pagani”, “pirati” tend to be non-ethnic. When a term akin to Danes, “danar” is first used in English, it appears as a political label describing a mix of peoples under Viking control.
The mobility of Vikings led to a fusion of cultures within their ranks and their trade routes would extend from Canada to Afghanistan. A striking feature of the early Vikings’ success was their ability to embrace and adapt from a wide range of cultures, whether that be the Christian Irish in the west or the Muslims of the Abbasid Caliphate in the east. [...]
In the early Viking Age, modern notions of nationalism and ethnicity would have been unrecognisable. Viking culture was eclectic, but there were common features across large areas, including use of Old Norse speech, similar shipping and military technologies, domestic architecture and fashions that combined Scandinavian and non-Scandinavian inspirations.
It can be argued that these markers of identity were more about status and affiliation to long-range trading networks than ethnic symbols. A lot of social display and identity is non-ethnic in character. [end excerpt]

* "Collection of 2,500-year-old coins discovered in British castle" (2017-11-05, [] [begin excerpt]:
The bulk of the collection is made up of Roman coins, ranging from the late second century BC to the late fourth century AD.
The NT said it was possible that the Husseys, like many collectors, were trying to gather a "complete set" of Roman rulers. Despite the difficulty of this - Roman succession was complex and many coins of the shorter reigns very rare - they were close to achieving it. [...]
MOLA's Julian Bowsher said: "It was a delight, as a coins specialist, to examine such a significant and diverse collection. A particular highlight was seeing Roman coins that rarely appear in Britain, such as those of the 3rd century emperors Balbinus, Pupienus and Aemilian, none of whom ruled for more than a year."
The records also give insight into the purchase value of the collection in the nineteenth century. In Edward's diary from 1823, the "Accounts" section lists him purchasing "Coins" priced from 4 shillings to 7 shillings and 6 pence (0.26 US cents to 0.49 US cents respectively) [end excerpt]

"Ancient" Byzantine, and of the Empire of the Great Alexander of Macedonia, of which all we have are model reconstructions, or, approximations of their technological advancements, temproally "frozen" as it were the 2nd cent. BCE
* "Ancient Greek science and technology exhibition opens in Beijing" (2017-11-08, []

This is included as a touch of the past existing today... An amazing 1000-year history...
Also, the titles of the Church described here reminds one of the original placement of the holy Catholic Churches of the world... and in this 1000-year history, that the Church of Rome is an upstart despite everything...
* "Armenian Patriarch in Pastoral Visits to Mexico" (2017-10-31, []:
Karekin II, the Supreme Catholic Patriarch of all Armenians, made his first pastoral visit here, where he expressed closeness and solidarity with the Mexican people after the earthquakes last September, highlighted the local media today.
Karekin II visited the Basilica of Guadalupe and met with the head of government of Mexico City, Miguel Angel Mancera, to whom he expressed his solidarity with those affected by the earthquake of last September 19.
The patriarch recalled that in 1988 Armenia suffered a devastating earthquake and pointed out the importance of solidarity between people and countries, under these circumstances.
The pontiff of the Armenian Apostolic Church also participated in an ecumenical ceremony at the Metropolitan Cathedral, to pay homage to the victims of earthquakes in Oaxaca, Chiapas, Mexico City, Puebla and Morelos.
The Armenian colony in Mexico is estimated at about 2,000 people, according to local press.

Madrid (2017, CGTN)

* "Karlomagno" (retrieved 2017-10-29, []

I nostri Saracini: Writing the History of the Arabs of Sicily []

* "Sanchunjaton, Phoenicia and Hesiod" (2004-08, [] [begin excerpt]:
Otto Eissfeldt wrote, in Taautos und Sanchunjaton (Akademie-Verlag - Berlin 1952), the following, which we have paraphrased:
In the 1st century AD, Philo of Byblos wrote a Phoenician History in nine volumes which he claimed was a translation into Greek from an early Phoenician writer of 1400 B.C. called Sanchunjaton, from Beirut. Philo’s work was lost, except parts of the first book, which tell a creation history remarkably similar to that of Hesiod. Its memory was preserved in the form of two references in the work of Porphyrius, a neo-platonist philosopher, disciple and biographer of Plotinus, who died in 304 AD. One of these references - ca 15 pages - was preserved thanks to a large paraphrase in Eusebius of Cesarea (Preparatio Evangelica)  around 315 AD - with the purpose of demonstrating the falsity of pagan beliefs.
Nothing else is left of the work of Sanchunjaton or Philo of Byblos. [end excerpt]


* "Unearthing the ancient traces of China-Saudi Arabia exchanges" (2019-01-18, [] [begin excerpt]:
China and Saudi Arabia recently unveiled the achievements of their joint archeological exploration at the ruins of the al Serrian port, an important pilgrim-trade port in ancient times connecting the East and West.
The ruins of the port are located by the Red Sea, the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula. It was deserted for unknown reasons and then covered up by sands. [...]
Results show that in the south of the site, there is a place that would have been a natural harbor for ship berthing and a channel for ships to move in and out. The findings also include bronze weights, agates, coins, as well as Arabian pottery and glazed pottery from ancient Persia and China, signifying that the al Serrian area by the Red Sea was an essential maritime channel for East-West exchanges. [...]
The five-year joint archeological exploration is one of the important cultural cooperations reached by the two countries when Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Saudi Arabia in January 2016.
From March to April in 2018, the team conducted the first unearthing and discovered debris of porcelain dating back to China's Song Dynasty (960-1279), Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and Qing Dynasty (1636-1911).
"As a Saudi Arabian, we highly value this cooperation project with China. The ancient trade channel from China to the Red Sea, namely the Maritime Silk Road, to a large extent, strengthens the cultural exchanges and economic and trade cooperation between China and Arab countries," said Mahdi Al Qarni, who is in charge of the joint archeological exploration on the Saudi Arabian side. [end excerpt]


* "Mithras, Jesus and Josephus Flavius" (2017, by Flavio Barbiero, []

* "The Lost and Found Cultural Foundations of Western Civilization" (2004-02-29, by Damien F. Mackey) [], including "Mohammed: Arabian 'Moses-like Myths' ".

* An Alternate Theory of the History of Christianity Chapter 6: Theories of the History Christianity involving Fraud & Fiction ( [], with the following:
""It is, I think, expedient
to set forth to all mankind
the reasons by which I was convinced
that the fabrication of the Christians
is a fiction of men composed by wickedness.

Though it has in it nothing divine,
by making full use of that part of the soul
which loves fable and is childish and foolish,
it has induced men to believe
that the monstrous tale is truth."

--- Emperor (360-363 CE) Flavius Claudius Julianus
"Against the Galileans" remains of the 3 books,
excerpted from Cyril of Alexandria, Contra Julianum (1923)"

Emperor Julian's Invectives Against the Galilaeans" (c.362 CE)
Within forty years of the Council of Nicaea, we have the emperor Julian writing the following:
""It is, I think, expedient to set forth to all mankind
the reasons by which I was convinced
that the fabrication of the Galilaeans
is a fiction of men composed by wickedness.
Jean Hardouin (1646-1729)
From Bossuet to Newman, Owen Chadwick, Second Edition, Cambridge, 1987 (1957):
In a work of 1693 he hinted; in a work of 1709 he affirmed; in posthumous works of 1729 and 1733 he shouted—a bewildering but simple thesis. Apart from the scriptures—that is the Latin scriptures—and six classical authors, all the writers of antiquity, profane or ecclesiastical, were forged by a group of writers in the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries. This group of forgers he never defined or discussed, but always referred to them generically as 'the impious crew', 'maudite cabale'.
Comment: The Referees Report from the Editor of the Journal of Hellenic Studies , October 2007 has made reference to this theory in assessing the "Constantine Fabrication Theory" without regard to the way I use C14 dating citations, which immediately refute Hardouin's theory.

Edwin Johnson's "Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins" (1890)
Edwin Johnson (1842-1901) was a recognised English historian, who is best known for his radical criticisms of Christian historiography. His above work was published anonymously in 1887, and a second work “The Pauline Epistles: Re-studied and Explained" was published in 1894. Both are available in full on the net. The following quote is from Antiqua Mater, where Johnson is referring to the author of the original "Ecclesiastical History" (period to 325 CE), Eusebius Pamphilus of Caesarea:
"This unknown monk pretends to be a man of research
into very scanty records of the past
... [...] ...
He is not a man of research at all,
except in the sense in which many novelists and romancers
are men of research for the purposes of their construction.
This writer is, in fact, simply a theological romancer,
and only in that sense can he be called an historian at all".

Also at (
- "Analysis of the HJ/MJ (Historical Jesus vs Mythical Jesus) Dichotomy" []
- "Three New Ideas in the Field of Ancient History" []
Idea (1) The Gnostic Gospels and Acts were authored 325-336 CE as a reaction to the Constantine Bible
Idea (2) Evidence of systematic Christian identify theft suggests Arius may not have been a Christian,
but in fact a Platonic theologian, and may be identified with the Gnostic Leucius Charinus
Idea (3) Constantine commissioned the fabrication of the New Testament and its history 312-324 CE
Index Chronological index of articles related to the field of ancient history in the 4th century.


This is the man who created the modern histriography for the Han Chinese people...
* "Martino Martini" (retrieved 2017-07-20, []

* "Yellow Emperor" (retrieved 2017-07-19, [] [begin excerpt]:
During their missions in China in the seventeenth century, the Jesuits tried to determine what year should be considered the epoch of the Chinese calendar. In his Sinicae historiae decas prima (first published in Munich in 1658), Martino Martini (1614–1661) dated the royal ascension of Huangdi to 2697 BC, but started the Chinese calendar with the reign of Fuxi, which he claimed started in 2952 BC. Philippe Couplet's (1623–1693) "Chronological table of Chinese monarchs" (Tabula chronologica monarchiae sinicae; 1686) also gave the same date for the Yellow Emperor. The Jesuits' dates provoked great interest in Europe, where they were used for comparisons with Biblical chronology. Modern Chinese chronology has generally accepted Martini's dates, except that it usually places the reign of Huangdi in 2698 BC and omits Huangdi's predecessors Fuxi and Shennong, who are considered "too legendary to include." [end excerpt]

* "Pompeii - The Return" []: In our film we present arguments in favor of a hypothesis that the famous Pompeii in fact finally disappeared off the face of the earth as a result of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631. - [comment]: Crimes of Academia:Shameless Forgery of the History of Pompeii buried by eruption of Vesuvius in 1631. Academia dying to cover-up real history fact that 40,000 Pompeii people buried by sudden 1631 eruption of Vesuvius
* "Features of the Domenico Fontana’s Water Conduit (the Canal of Count Sarno) and the Date of Pompeii Destruction" (2009) [], abstract: Excerpt
Features of the Domenico Fontana’s Water Conduit (the Canal of Count Sarno) and the Date of Pompeii Destruction
Dipl.-Ing. (TU) Andreas Tschurilow, Deggendorf, Bavaria, Germany
It is considered that Pompeii was destroyed in the first century and, being buried under a layer of volcanic ash and pumice-stone, it remained forgotten for more than 1500 years until in 1592 the architect Domenico Fontana, during the construction of a canal to bring water to Torre Annunziata, found in an underground passageway several inscriptions on marble plates indicating the location of an ancient city. In this paper we present arguments in favor of another hypothesis: that Pompeii came to the end of its existence after the completion of the canal which was constructed in ruined city, however, still not fully covered by the volcanic ashes. The paper brings up for discussion some results of the author’s study partially popularized on the Internet and presents his opinion that the famous Pompeii, being excavated by the archeologists in the last 200 years, in fact finally disappeared off the face of the earth as a result of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631.
Keywords: Pompeii, dating of Pompeii’s destruction, eruption of Vesuvius, Domenico Fontana
After the eruption in 79 AD, various sources testify to up to eleven eruptions in the period from 202 AD to 1140 AD. However, in the next 500 years until the eruption in December 1631, there is no credible evidence of the eruption of Vesuvius. It seems that despite its regular eruptions, the volcano suddenly calmed down and only gathered strength for the next 500 years!
The catastrophic eruption started on 16 December 1631 and the population of the nearby towns and villages stampede to Naples. Ashes and volcanic bombs showered the surroundings of Vesuvius. On the next day after the destructive pyroclastic flows, volcanic mudflows - lahars ran down to the sea. December 18th came to naught, and on December 19th evacuation of the survivors was organized by sea. According to various sources, this eruption caused the death of four to eighteen thousand persons. Starting from 1631, the year of its catastrophic eruption, Vesuvius never stopped bothering the citizens of Campania till the last eruption in 1944.
On the way from Naples to Torre Annunziata, about fifteen kilometers away from Naples, there is a monument, an epitaph on the front of the Faraone Mennella’s villa (Via Nazionale al N. 279) of the persons who died because of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631, two stone plates with some text in Latin.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Fig. 1 The epitaph of the persons who died because of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 on the villa of Faraone Mennella in Torre del Greco
On one of these plates, the list of damaged cities, along with the quite prosperous Resina (Ercolano) and Portici contains POMPEII and HERCULANEUM, the cities that supposedly had disappeared almost two thousand years ago!!!
And this monument was not a remake as confirmed by authors of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The French traveler Misson who visited Italy in 1687-1688, published a book in 1691 about his travel to Italy and there is a chapter describing his visit to Vesuvius. The Amsterdam edition of 1743 shows the Latin text of the epitaph without any translation.[1] In 1700 Domenico Antonio Parrino published a two-volume book about Naples and its surroundings, in which he described in details the coast of the Bay of Naples, the city and villas, their past and present, the location of the place and he mentions the above epitaph without any comment.[2] The book Historical and Critical Description of the Underground City found at the outskirts of the Mt. Vesuvius by an anonymous author, published in Avignon in 1748, also shows the complete epitaph in Latin without translation.[3] Another traveler, Johann Georg Keyßler, in 1751 also paid attention to this epitaph and included it in his book.[4]
Does this mean that Pompeii was destroyed in fact as a result of the eruption in December 1631?
Pompeii and Herculaneum were marked on the maps from fifteenth - sixteenth century and on the illustrations in books of the time about the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631. Besides, in his book De incendio Vesuvii excitato XVLJ. Kal. Ianuar anno trigesimo saeculi decimo septimi, Neapoli, 1633 , the author Mascolo, an eyewitness of the eruption, wrote this:
"...Everything on the way was swept away by this storm and the fire whirl. Stocks and flocks were drawn and scattered around, fields, woods, huts, houses, towers were destroyed and thrown about. Two of these fire flows were very quick, one of them vigorously ran down to Herculaneum, the other one ran to Pompeii (the cities once recovered from the ashes, I do not know if they will be alive again)... And about Herculaneum and Pompeii (this is how I call both the ancient city and the one next to it) I will tell you a little bit later."[5]
and then explains:
“What to tell about Pompeii?... Now, on the contrary, it was not only horrified by the roaring bicorn Vesuvius but was buried without a splendid burial procession under the ashes, and there is probably not [even one] eyewitness of this misery left from the city of Annunciate, as its called now . And such a great disaster did not happen during Nero when [the city] was damaged by an earthquake and when during a theatrical performance a casual argument between Nucerians and Pompeians became the reason for a bloody wrangle, first with stones and then with knives. And now the Pompeii itself looks really miserable..."[6]
[1] Maximilien Misson, Voyage d'Italie ed. augm. de remarques nouvelles et interessantes, Amsterdam : Clousier, 1743
[2] Domenico Antonio Parrino, Napoli Città Nobilissima, Antica e Fedelissima, Esposta a gli Occhi et alla Mente de’ Curiosi, diviso in due Parti - Stamperia del Parrino, Napoli, 1700
[3] Moussinot. Memoire historique et critique sur la ville souterraine decouverte au pied du Mont-Vesuve... Avignon : chez Alexandre Giroud, 1748
[4] Johann Georg Keyßler, Neueste Reisen durch Deutschland, Böhmen, Ungarn, die Schweiz, Italien und Lothringen. Theil 2. Hannover, 1751
[5] Giovanni Battista Masculi (Mascolo), De incendio vesuvi excitato XVLJ. Kal. Ianuar anno trigesimo saeculi decimo septimi, libri X cum chronologia superiorum incendiorum ephemeride ultimi ed. Roncagliolo Secondino, Napoli, 1633, 16
[6] Ibid., 34 - 36

* "Canary Islands, forgotten for a millennium?" (2007, by Uwe Topper) [] [begin excerpt]:
If someone had discovered the islands accidentally that way, the knowledge would have spread like a fire in no time. In short: The Canary Islands couldn’t hide from well or bad willing seafarers for thousand years.
There is another hint to the conclusion that the hiatus has no real foundation but is artificially provoked by wrong chronology: When the first amphoras were found on the Canary Islands they were classed by scientists as Roman, and more exactly as late imperial. The eminent Prof. Miguel Beltrán himself had proposed the classification of the amphoras in 1970 but twenty years later (1990, p.91. note 14) he had to confess that this was an error; the amphoras were not antique Roman but belonged to the 16th Christian century and thereafter. It is not easy to admit an error of such a consequence, so the correction has its full weight.
The same error had been committed by archaeologists who classified amphoras as Roman found at the coast of South America but later had to recall this astonishing announcement and come down to the 16th century with provenance Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain.
Errors of this magnitude are quite telling. As it seems amphoras for oil or wine from Roman workshops of imperial time and amphoras from Christian 16th century Spain are with all their marks and details so much equal that experts have difficulty in telling the difference. Then there cannot have passed more than a generation or two between their manufacture because a handicraft like pottery cannot slumber for one millennium and than be resuscitated in exactly the same way. The direct passing on of the knowhow from father to son is a basic condition.
So the Canary Islands at the westernmost edge of the oecumene give us two indications for our thesis that Christian chronology might be wrong by as much as a thousand years. There could be other factors underlying the problem – such as a catastrophy – but the solution (aided by a lot of indications all over the old world) seems now very simple: Late imperial Roman time and early Christian Spanish seafaring follow closely each other. The traditional millennium between them is due to the chronological invention of the church. [end excerpt]

* "In Search of the Dark Ages" (1987, by Michael Wood), pgs. 186, 187 []
- This magnificent Roman sardonyx cameo, 6 inches long, was given by Ethelred to St Albans. It shows an emperor with Victory in his hands: doubtless how Ethelred would have liked to see himself.

- entire image [], caption added by author: 'The Christian king must severely punish wicked men,' wrote Ethelred's adviser Wulfstan: 'He must be both merciful and austere; that is the king's right, and that shall accomplish most in the nation.'

* From "Anglo-Saxons: Alfred the Great" ( []:
- A king with his council or witan

- A silver penny

* "Mercenaries in Russia: How Westerners shaped the army; As early as the late 15th century, the Russian army began to depend more and more on foreign mercenaries. Unlike those who had come before, these fighters were often from Western Europe and their arrival signaled extraordinary changes to the Russian armed forces. Previously, Russia had imported these soldiers of fortune from Scandinavia or the southern steppes" (2017-10-16, []
[begin excerpt]:
The first Russian fleet -
Ivan the Terrible was the first Russian monarch who, as a result of his battles with Poland and Sweden, attempted to shift the fighting into open water and founded the first Russian fleet in the Baltic Sea. He put this fleet under the command of a foreigner, a Danish admiral, and headquartered it at the newly captured port of Narva. In 1570, Ivan the Terrible’s fleet consisted of six ships manned by crews of primarily Danish and German mercenaries.
The fleet was quite successful as it battled Polish and Swedish ships. However, Denmark soon seized the fleet, possibly because of their fear of Russia’s strengthening position in the Baltics. [end excerpt]
- Illustration caption: Ivan IV's fleet was quite successful in battling Polish and Swedish ships. / The first Russian fleet. Miniature from the Russian manuscript of the XVI century. The Illuminated Chronicles of Ivan the Terrible (Litsevoi svod). State Historical Museum, Moscow.

Chronological set of maps for The Holy Land, indicating a gap of a thousand years

* "The Schoyen Collection: 20,000 Ancient Manuscripts from 134 Countries in 120 Languages" (2016-08-14, []

An uninterrupted succession of holders for these books, a direct line from "ancient" to "medieval" Rome
* "X-rays reveal 1,300-year-old writings inside later bookbindings; The words of the 8th-century Saint Bede are among those that have been found by detecting iron, copper and zinc – constituents of medieval ink" (2016-06-04, []
* "6th Century Roman Law Text Discovered After Being Hidden for Centuries Inside Parchment Recycled as Medieval Bookbinding" (2017-07-25, by Theodoros Karasavvas) []

What is the status of the Judean community within the Byzantine Empire?
* "Boutique Wine for Byzantines: 1,600-year-old Wine Press Discovered in the Negev Desert" (2017-07-26, by Theodoros Karasavvas) []

* "Nicolas Flamel" (retrieved 2017-07-11, []
Nicolas Flamel (French: [nikɔla flamɛl]; prob. Pontoise, ca 1330 – Paris, March 22, 1418)[1] was a successful French scribe and manuscript-seller. After his death, Flamel developed a reputation as an alchemist believed to have discovered the Philosopher's Stone and achieved immortality. These legendary accounts first appeared in the seventeenth century.
 Illustration caption []: The Serpent on the Cross - The Crucified Serpent, after an illustration in the notebook of Nicolas Flamel

* Aequivalencies of Mythical Characters, (largely) as gleaned/culled from the Pyramid Texts (retrieved 2017-07-30, []

* [], Earliest extant manuscript copies of Arrian date to the late Middle Ages

* (1954, by A. Rupert Hall; 1983 "The Revolution in Science 1500 - 1750" edition, published by Longman Group Ltd.), pg. 214 [begin excerpt]:
Tycho Brahe, Galileo and Kepler are the first scientists whose correspondence survives in any considerable volume, then from about 1640 such material becomes extremely copious. [end excerpt]

* "Ancient Viking toilet found in Denmark, fecal analysis dates it at 1,000 years old" (2017-06-19, [] [begin excerpt]:
While archaeologists knew city dwelling Vikings had some sort of sewage system, they previously thought rural Vikings relieved themselves outside and collected the waste to be used as fertilizer.
It now turns out that they were every bit as civilized as their urban counterparts. [end excerpt]

* "Medieval villagers ‘mutilated corpses to stop rise of living dead’ " (2017-0403, [] [begin excerpt]: Writers from the 11th century onwards have long described restless corpses, or “revenants,” whose bad deeds while alive meant they would be restless in their graves. It was feared their evil natures or Satan would give them the power to crawl out of their graves, spread disease and attack the living.
Beheading them, breaking their bones and setting them on fire was seen as a way to stop their return.
Until now, no human remains disposed of in this way had ever been found. Scientists from Historic England and the University of Southampton [] are thought to have the “first archaeological evidence of the practice” in the UK.
The archaeologists studied 137 fragments of broken human bones, including the remains of adults, teenagers and children excavated more than half a century ago, and dated back to the period between the 11th and 14th century. [...]
He said it was puzzling that skeletons of children and women were found in the pit, as writings about revenants only mentioned male corpses coming back to life. He added that given the beheadings and burnings took place over hundreds of years, “it is strange we have not found it elsewhere. [end excerpt]

* "Humanistic Display Script" []: This segment represents part of the scribe's colophon to a copy of 1451 of the Politics and Economics of Aristotle, translated into Latin by Leonardo Aretino for Cosimo de Medici, from a private collection.

* "Discovery of huge Viking camp reveals secrets of Norse armies in medieval England" (2017-05-21, []

* "The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye" (by Raoul Lefèvre; 1474, tranlsated by William Caxton) []
This was the first book printed in England. More information [].

* "The Iron Age" (1641, by Thomas Heywood),
- part 1: "The Iron Age : contayning the Rape of Hellen: The siege of Troy: The combate betwixt Hector and Aiax: Hector and Troilus slayne by Achilles: Achilles slaine by Paris: Aiax and Vlisses contend for the Armour of Achilles: The Death of Aiax, &c." [],
- part 2: "The second part of The Iron Age : which contayneth the death of Penthesilea, P[aris], Priam, and Hecuba; the burning of Troy; the death[s] of Agamemnon, Menelaus, Critemnestra, Hellena, Orestes, Egistus, Pillades, King Diomed, Pyrhus, Cethus, Synon, Thersites, &c." []

Vedic (Hinduism) Influence in Ancient Europe (Italy, Greece, Russia) [] [], Arabia []

* "Amanirenas (c.60 BCE - c.10 BCE): The One-Eyed Queen Who Fought Rome Tooth and Nail" (retrieved 2017-05-21, [], how "ancient" Egypt survived the Roman invasion! More about the undeciphered Kush script and its acknowledged continuation of "ancient" Egypt script [] [].

Electric Skies and ancient religious epics [] [] [] [] [] []

Basque Swastika found in the Yucatan peninsula
* "Ancient Symbols in the New World, Part 3" (2016, []

* "Isolated People in Sweden Used Runes Up Until 1900, Still Speak Old Norse" (2015) adapted from a machine translated article []


"Living artifacts", as though these people are what archaeologists would call ancient if they left their homes as refugees and there was dirt and sandstorms that buried their villages...
* "Meymand: A Wonderful Village in Iran with Houses Inside Cave; Meymand (also spelt Maymand and Meimand) is a village of troglodytes – cave dwellers – located in the southeastern Iranian province of Kerman" (2017-05-11, Tasnim newswire, via []:
Meymand village has been continuously inhabited for 2,000 to 3,000 years making it one of Iran’s four oldest surviving villages.
Some claim that Meymand village has been inhabited for 12,000 years, that is, since the “middle stone ages”, making it a Mesolithic village. Reportedly, 10,000 year old stone engravings and 6,000 year-old potteries have been discovered at the site.
The village is a UNESCO world heritage site and was awarded UNESCO’s 2005 Melina Mercouri prize.
Meymand is one of the districts of Shahr-e-Babak, and is one of the spectacular villages of Iran. Here there are a mass of crypts, with 15 stony, circular and roof-less chambers. The same covers an area of approximately 400 sq. m. This vicinity seems to be a place of burial, as skeleton bones and other articles have been found there.
The stony mosque of Meymand is another interesting site in this village. The ancient houses in this rural settlement resemble minarets constructed in the breast of these hard stone mountains. In this minaret shaped dwellings which are very strong and durable, are chambers, corridors and pillars displaying an intriguing architecture.
Rock art can be found in and around Maymand. Three kilometers northeast of Meymand, beside a gravel road that runs towards the Tela valley, lies a hill called Mar Khazineh (Mar in the local dialect means hill). A 350 m. climb down the hill brings us to an estodan (ossuary) plot filled with the scattered pieces of maliciously destroyed ossuaries decorated with rock art. Locals say that these and other ossuaries are from the Zoroastrian-Sassanian era.
Due to the incline of the surrounding valley, these dwellings are placed in a terraced fashion, in four or five steps one after another. These have a height of 2 m. and are nearly 16 – 20 sq. m. in area, and are devoid of windows or chimneys. In the center of each chamber is a stove that was used for cooking purposes as well as warming the dwellings.
Indeed we can say that Meymand is parallel to history and is the head of history. According to one of the researches: if you look at Meymand from 0/5 km it seems that you look at the history from a deep cylinder. In other word seeing Meymand means seeing history and the ordinary life of people for who are interested in history, past and its issues.
Photos: [] [] [] [] [] []




* "Orpheus Mosaic On Display At The Istanbul Archaeology Museum" (2015-06-11, []


* "Lost Ancient High Technology At Elephantine Island In Egypt" []


* "A Long-Lost Dark Age Kingdom has been FOUND in Scotland" []

* "Homer in Print: Humanists, Scholars, & Students" []

* "why no hieroglyphs inside the great pyramid" Q&A Forum []
Also, the adjacent tombs and temples are full of glyphs...
* "How Old Are The Pyramids?" ( [] [begin excerpt]:
NOVA: What evidence do you have that the pyramids and tombs at Giza were from, as you say, no more than 5,000 years ago.
HAWASS: First of all you have inscriptions that are written inside the tombs, the tombs that are located on the west side of the Great Pyramid for the officials, and the tombs that are located on the east side of the Great Pyramid for the nobles, the family of the King Khufu. And you have this lady, the daughter of Khufu. And this man was the vizier of the king. This one was the inspector of the pyramids, the chief inspector of the pyramids, the wife of the pyramid, the priest of the pyramid. You have the inscriptions and you have pottery dated to Dynasty 4. You have inscriptions that they found of someone who was the overseer of the side of the Pyramid of Khufu. And another one who was the overseer of the west side of the pyramid. You have tombs of the workmen who built the pyramids that we found, with at least 30 titles that have been found on them to connect the Great Pyramid of Khufu to Dynasty 4. You have the bakery that Mark Lehner found. And all the evidence that we excavate here. [end excerpt]

* "Norway’s Saint Olaf Uncovered: Archaeologists Believe They have Discovered the Shrine of the Lost Viking King" (2017-01-17, []

* "Stars in Their Eyes: Art and Medieval Astronomy" (2017-01-24, []

* "Medieval Spin-Offs of the Roman de la Rose" (2017-01-09, []

* "The Psychomachia: An Early Medieval Comic Book" (2017-01-20, []

* "A Calendar for January 2017" (2017-01-01, [] [begin excerpt]: The illustration of January’s labour of the month depicts the typical activity of feasting, but with the addition of the two-faced Roman god Janus. Janus was traditionally thought to be the namesake of the month, although it is more likely it was named for the goddess Juno instead. He is pictured inside a tiny castle against a gold backdrop. [end excerpt]
Illustration caption: Janus feasting, detail of January Calendar page, Additional MS 36684, f. 1v

* "The Dark Origins Of Valentine's Day" (2011-02-13, []

* "Books depicted in art" (2014-07-01, [] [begin excerpt]:
Street vendors/book peddlers -
'Bealux abc belles heures’ is part of the ‘le Cris de Paris’ genre illustrating Parisian street vendors. It is a woodcut engraving ca 1500 showing a moment in time when prayer books, once restricted to the wealthy aristocracy, became affordable to the bourgeois with the advent of the printing press. Thin, printed copies were sold on the streets. In the vendor’s right hand is a Book of Hours showing a limp cover. Underneath his left hand we can see detail of a leather binding. [end excerpt]

* "Elves and Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts" (2016-01-18, [] [begin excerpt]:
One of these prayerbooks-- the Royal Prayerbook, Royal MS 2 A XX-- is also notable for containing one of the earliest known written reference to an elf (ælf or ylfe in Old English).  Unlike the heroic and otherworldly beings of J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle-earth saga or Santa’s jolly assistants in American literature, the elf in this text seems to be rather sinister. The prayer in which the elf is mentioned seems to be an exorcism: ‘I conjure you, devil of Satan, of (an/the) elf, through the living and true God...that he is put to flight from that person’ (translated from the original Latin by Alaric Hall, Elves in Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2007), p. 72).
The association of Satan with an elf or someone called ‘Elf’ may reflect pre-Christian beliefs in Anglo-Saxon society. We have no direct written evidence for pre-Christian society or even later popular beliefs amongst the Anglo-Saxons; however, belief in elves features in later medieval accounts of Norse paganism, which may have shared some elements of its mythology with Anglo-Saxon paganism. The author of this prayer may have compared Satan to an elf to help his or her Anglo-Saxon audience understand who Satan was and what his powers were.
Elves also have negative connotations in Bald’s Leechbook, a collection of Anglo-Saxon medical remedies and diagnostic guides which has also now been digitised and put online (for more information about this manuscript, see our post Bald’s Leechbook Now Online). On the page shown below, there are charms which suggest elves could cause pain in domestic animals. Elves are also associated with diseases of the head and with mental illness in the leechbooks. [end excerpt]


* "The New Chronology: The Dark Ages Didn't Exist - Uwe Topper, Heribert Illig" ( []


Plato's Atlantis [], including "Plato's Oldest Surviving Manuscript Dates to 895 AD, No Originals Survive" []


bishop (n.)
O.E. bisceop "bishop, high priest (Jewish or pagan)," from L.L. episcopus, from Gk. episkopos "watcher, overseer," a title for various government officials, later taken over in a Church sense, from epi- "over" (see epi-) + skopos "watcher," from skeptesthai "look at" (see scope (n.1)). Given a specific sense in the Church, but the word also was used in the New Testament as a descriptive title for elders, and continues as such in some non-hierarchical Christian sects.
 A curious example of word-change, as effected by the genius of different tongues, is furnished by the English bishop and the French évêque. Both are from the same root, furnishing, perhaps the only example of two words from a common stem so modifying themselves in historical times as not to have a letter in common. (Of course many words from a far off Aryan stem are in the same condition.) The English strikes off the initial and terminal syllables, leaving only piscop, which the Saxon preference for the softer labial and hissing sounds modified into bishop. Évêque (formerly evesque) merely softens the p into v and drops the last syllable. [William S. Walsh, "Handy-Book of Literary Curiosities," Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott, 1892]
 Late Latin episcopus in Spanish became obispo. Cognate with O.S. biscop, O.H.G. biscof. The chess piece (formerly archer, before that alfin) was so called from 1560s.


* "Early Medieval Monographs 400 - 1300" ( []


( []:
TITLE:  Vesconte World Maps
DATE:  1306 - 1321
AUTHOR:  Pietro [Petrus] Vesconte
DESCRIPTION: The world maps made by the European Church Fathers were a legacy taken over from the ancient world, and they were gradually expanded and adapted in accordance with the texts which they accompanied. The commentaries and learned notes (scholia) added to the texts formed the basis of further alterations to the maps.
Maps gradually came to stand on their own as independent works, instead of mere supplements to texts. They became an essential part of the collections in monastic libraries, in whose catalogues we commonly find, from the ninth century onward, at least one such independent map.
Among the first maps in Christian Europe to reveal a new character are those by Pietro Vesconte (fl. 1306–1330). He was a Genoese cartographer and one of the earliest creators of portolan [nautical] charts. He operated primarily out of Venice, and greatly influenced Italian and Catalan mapmaking throughout the 14th and 15th centuries. Some consider him as the first professional cartographer to sign and date his works regularly. He produced chiefly sea-charts, and his world maps betray his experience in that field. Vesconte came from Genoa but did some, perhaps all, of his work at Venice. His work falls within the period 1310-30; the name ‘Perrino Vesconte’, which appears on one atlas and one chart, may be his own, using a diminutive form, or that of another member of his family. Vesconte was one of the few people in Europe before 1400 to see the potential of cartography and to apply its techniques with imagination. As can be seen in the world maps he drew around 1320 he introduced a heretofore unseen accuracy in the outline of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean and Black Sea, probably because they were taken from the portolan [nautical] charts. We may suspect that his influence lay behind the maps of Italy in the Great Chronology by Paolino Veneto during the years of 1306 to 1321 that was copied at Naples not long after, for other maps in the same manuscript are related to maps from Vesconte’s workshop that illustrate Marino Sanudo’s book calling for a new crusade. Marino Sanudo (Sanudo the Elder of Torcello, c. 1260-1338) was a Venetian statesman and geographer.  He is best known for his lifelong attempts to revive the crusading spirit and movement.  He wrote his great work is entitled Liber secretorem fidelum Crucis, sive de Recuperatio Terrae Sancta [Secret book of the loyalty to the Cross or the Recapture of the Holy Lands], also called Historia Hierosolymitana, Liber de expeditione Terrae Sanctae, and Opus Terrae Sanctae, the last being perhaps the proper title of the whole treatise as completed in three parts or “books”.
Sanudo’s work discussed medieval trade and trade-routes as well as political and other history.  In the work, he includes maps and plans which are of great importance in the development of cartography.   Begun in March 1306, and finished (in its earliest form) in January 1307, the book was offered to Pope Clement V as a manual for true Crusaders who desired the re-conquest of the Holy Land.  To this original Liber Secretorum Sanuto added significantly.  Two other “books” were composed between December 1312 and September 1321, when the entire work was presented by the author to Pope John XXII, together with a map of the world, a map of Palestine, a chart of the Mediterranean, Black Sea and west European coasts, and plans of Jerusalem, Antioch and Acre.  A copy was also offered to the King of France, to whom Sanuto desired to commit the military and political leadership of the new crusade.
These maps of Italy use the coastal outline from portolan charts as the basis for a general map of the area, showing mountains, rivers and inland towns. It was a precursor of the use of portolan charts in regional mapping. This is large propaganda volume, was written on vellum and includes many miniatures and vignettes of the Crusaders and their battles with the Saracens. One of the paintings on folio 7r is that of the Crusader forces meeting King Leo of Armenia (Cilician Armenia) and the prisoners of the Armenian king. The king himself is shown surrounded by symbols of various rulers neighboring Cilicia, namely the Lion in the north (Mongols), the Wolf in the west (the Turks), the Serpent in the south and the Leopard in the east.
The world map included in this volume was made by Vesconte who used his knowledge of sea charts in the crafting of this work. On this copy he even drew rosettes, which are standard feature in the portolan sea charts but are scarcely used outside the sea chart tradition. The region of the Mediterranean, whose accurate portolan charts already existed, is depicted in true detail but the rest of the world is shown in very approximate form and shape.
The world map by Vesconte, now in the British Library and measuring 50 x 34.5 cm (double page), may be even earlier than his chart dated 1311; although the first known copies of it are found, with other unsigned and undated maps, in a manuscript of Marino Sanuto’s book dating from 1306-1321. The maps were in fact long thought to be the work of Marino Sanuto [also spelled “Sanudo”] himself. Later, however, a copy of the Liber secretorum was discovered with the signature of Pietro Vesconte and the date 1320, and he is now considered the author of the maps in place of Sanuto, who was not known as a cartographer. As mentioned above, Sanuto’s work was written to induce the kings of Europe to undertake another crusade against the Turks, and so the following maps accompanied it: a world map, maps of the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, the western coast of Europe and Palestine, plans of Jerusalem, and Ptolemais [Acre and Antioch].
Pietro Vesconte, in his mappamundi drawn for Marino Sanudo’s Secreta fidelium crucis, tried to combine the two types into one image. Vesconte was a prolific maker of portolan charts in Venice between 1310 and 1330. While much of his production is conventional, his world map for Sanudo’s crusader manuscript departs dramatically from earlier examples, seeking to combine the mathematical system and new land-shapes of the portolan charts with the contained, circular, Jerusalem-centered format of most mappaemundi. In this map, the influence of the portolan charts can be seen at a glance: in contrast with the amorphous forms of Asia and southern Africa (familiar in many other medieval mappaemundi), the Mediterranean world is instantly recognizable and proportionate, clearly copied directly from the outlines of a portolan chart. Even more striking is the network of lines that are drawn in a sixteen-point wind-rose that encircles the whole earth. He uses an exact copy of one of the rhumb-line networks that covered half of a portolan chart to grid the space of the entire world, rather than just one part as in the portolan charts. The grid, however, no longer holds any indexical significance outside of the small corner of the map that has been drawn from the portolan charts. The rest is a strange hybrid that would have provided little navigational assistance to any traveler. The rhumb lines claim for this new map a kind of symbolic empirical authority, when in actuality the points on the rhumb-circle do little more than indicate the positions of the winds (much like the circular wind-faces depicted along the edges of the world in a work like the Psalter map, #223 Book II). What the map actually shows varies little from a traditional mappamundi; what has changed is its implied claim to be modern and accurate in a different sense. Vesconte’s map offers a glimpse of the currency that empirical geometry carried at this transitional moment. Vesconte clearly saw in the geometry of the portolan charts an iconic, modern power that could be combined with the forms of a traditional world map to create a new kind of picture.
The Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts, with (in the east) the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, are no longer an unrecognizable pattern of shapes that can be identified only by names attached to them; instead they are drawn just as in a normal portolan  chart.  Also like the portolan charts, Vesconte covers the surface of his map with rhumb lines or loxodromes (except on the Sanuto version); one of the first to use loxodromic or rhumb lines to prepare charts.  A somewhat better conceptual construct is also shown of the greater continental rivers of the North, from the Danube to the Don and Volga, and from the Vistula to the Oxus and Jaxartes.  In this fluvial detail, however, as in the delineation of two Caspian Seas, Vesconte is more traditional and unnatural on “his map” than the one ascribed to him in Sanuto. On the other hand, Vesconte is distinctly truer in his representation of the British Isles and Scandinavia on “his map” than on Sanuto’s.  But everything outside Vesconte’s experience betrays the poverty of his sources.   His conventionalization of Africa, with its south-east projection after the style of the Arab cartographer Ibn Idrisi (#219, Book II), so as to face India/Asia, and with a western Nile River traversing the continent, from the region around the Mountains of the Moon and the sources of the river of Egypt to the Atlantic.  The delineation of East Asia and of the northern regions, from China to Denmark, show no noticeable inclusion of recent discoveries or modification from the typical medieval design, so completely discarded in the Catalan Atlas (#235), half a century later. Vesconte‘s world maps were circular in format and oriented with East to the top, although most of the fabulous elements so common to early world maps have been omitted, Prester John, the mythical Christian king occasionally located in Ethiopia, does manage to appear on Vesconte’s map and has been “re-located” to India.
[end excerpt]


* "What if St. Peter's in Rome is not really Ancient?" []


Insight into the wealthy patrons of science and art in Hispanic al-Andalus...
* "Pedro Madruga: Galician VIP…and Another Name for Christopher Columbus?" (2017-01-04, []

And in other parts of the Latin Realm...
* "Two New Theories on the Hotly Debated Origins of Christopher Columbus" (2016-03-05, []
* "Ancient Gondomar Castle and its Historic Connections to Caesar, Columbus, and Drake" (2016-03-20, []


A new Dendonchronological dating system:
* "A trip to the land of endangered ancient olive trees" (2017-01-04, AFP Newswire) []
It is aged 1,702 years according to a dating method used by the Polytechnic University of Madrid -- which means it was planted under the Roman emperor Constantine.


* "Goths vs. Greeks: Epic Ancient Battle Revealed in Newfound Text" (2016-03-18, [] [begin excerpt]: Fragments of an ancient Greek text telling of an invasion of Greece by the Goths during the third century A.D. have been discovered in the Austrian National Library. The text includes a battle fought at the pass of Thermopylae.
Researchers used spectral imaging to enhance the fragments, making it possible to read them. The analysis suggests the fragments were copied in the 11th century A.D. and are from a text that was written in the third-century A.D. by an Athens writer named Dexippus. [...]
In the text, Dexippus said the commander of the Greek force, a general named Marianus, tried to raise morale by reminding the Greeks of the battles their ancestors had fought at Thermopylae in the past, including the famous fifth-century B.C. battle between the Persians and a Spartan-led force.
"O Greeks, the occasion of our preservation for which you are assembled and the land in which you have been deployed are both truly fitting to evoke the memory of virtuous deeds," Marianus' speech to his troops reads, as translated from the fragment. "For your ancestors, fighting in this place in former times, did not let Greece down and deprive it of its free state.
"In previous attacks, you seemed terrifying to the enemies," said Marianus. "On account of these things, future events do not appear to me not without hope …"
The fragment ends before the completion of Marianus' speech, and the outcome of the battle is uncertain, researchers said. [end excerpt]
- Photo [] caption: Researchers used spectral imaging to read the writing on this fragment, which details the third-century Thermopylae battle.


The "Heinsohn Horizon" is reflected here...
* "Monastery of saint Moses…destination for prayer and contemplation" (2019-04-12, []:
There, on a plateau about 1320 meters above sea level, Deir Mar Musa al-Habashi (The monastery of saint Moses the Abyssinian), is located in a scene calling the viewer to meditate and think as a worshiped priest away from the noise.
The Monastery, approximately 15 km east of Nabk city, is a tourism destination for those who seek peace, contemplation, calmness and beauty.
It was built by the Romans to monitor the road between Damascus and Tadmor( Palmyra) before the coming of monks in the 16 century and turned into a monastery about 1,500 years ago.
The Monastery was named after St. Moses the Abyssinian, the son of a king of Ethiopia who left his country looking for the kingdom of God. He traveled to Egypt and then to the Holy Land in Palestine before he became a monk and lived in Qara, to the north of al-Nabk region in Damascus Countryside, and then as a hermit not far from there in the valley of what is today the monastery.
The church of the monastery, which was built in the 16 AD, is divided into two parts; a nave with two aisles and is illuminated by a high eastern window and the second part is the sanctuary, which contains the altar and the apse and is separated from the rest of the church by a stone and wooden chancel screen.
Three layers of frescoes can be seen on the ornamented walls. The first layer dates back to the middle of the 11 century, the second belongs to the end of the 11 century and the third from the 13 century.
Great icons and images covered the church walls such as the image of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the four evangelists are painted above the four columns looking upwards to copy a heavenly page with Syriac letters, ten virgins carrying lamps, in addition to images of Jesus Christ, Virgin Mary and John the Baptist.
The paintings that adorn the walls of the monastery date back to three historical stages. each of which has its own artistic style.
The first of these stages dates back to 1058 and 1095; the influence of Hellenistic art is evident in the drawings as it appears in the painting of the prophet Elias giving his mantle to the prophet Elisha.
Paintings of the second stage were influenced by Byzantine art as in the paintings of the Baptism of Jesus,  St. Simon al-Amoudi and some writings in Arabic Language and the baptismal font.
Most of the paintings date back to the third phase of 1200 AD,  they are of a Syriac character, one of which shows the announcement of the birth of Jesus Christ while the other shows the scene of the judgment ” day of religion” which is divided into four levels, the highest of which contains the divine throne.


* "Searching for the Vikings: 3 Sites Possibly Found in Canada" (2016-04-18, []
* "In Photos: Viking Outposts Possibly Found in Canada" (2016-04-18, [], map captions:
The only certain Viking site in the New World is located at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland. That site was excavated in the 1960s and would have served as an outpost to Vikings some 1,000 years ago. Recently however three possible Viking sites have been excavated in Canada. Two of them — at Sop's Arm and Rosee's Point — are also located in Newfoundland. The third site, called Nanook is located on Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic.
Sagas from the time of the Vikings tell of their journeys into the New World. They mention several lands that they visited, including Helluland (widely believed to be Baffin Island), Markland (widely believed to be Labrador) and Vinland (a more mysterious location that some archaeologists argue may be Newfoundland).

* "Possible Viking Settlement in Canada Revealed in Satellite Images" (2016-04-01, []
* "New North America Viking Voyage Discovered" (2013-06-05, []

* "The Vanishing Christians of Islam" (2013-04-14, [], photo caption: Mosaic depiction of Mary holding an Arabic text, Convent of Our Lady, Greek Orthodox Church, Sednaya, Syria.

* "Did the Scots visit Iceland? New research reveals island inhabited 70 years before Vikings thought to have arrived" (2010-12-23, []

* "6 Archaeological Forgeries That Could Have Changed History" (2015-08-24, []


* "Roma and “Gypsies” Definitions and Groups" (retrieved 2017-01-01, []
* "Myths, Hypotheses and Facts Concerning the Origin of Peoples The Vlach, or the Origin of Romanians" (retrieved 2015-06-02, [] [begin article excerpt]:
The Daco-Roman Myth -
The present-day Transylvania was inhabited in Roman times by the people known by Greeks as Gæta, whom Romans called Dacii, that were a Thracian people. The supporters of the Daco-Roman continuity assert that the Dacians were colonized by Romans in such a way that they adopted Latin language and became the ancestors of present-day Romanians (or even dare to say that the Dacians' language was close to Latin, which is utterly improbable). The occupation lasted about 160 years only, a period that was characterized not by an idyllic relationship between the two peoples but by violent rebellions of the Dacians against the invaders with consequent retaliation and repression. After the Romans evacuated Dacia because of the imminent Barbaric invasions, which actually happened, the hypothetical Daco-Romans were supposed to have survived for about a millennium hidden in caves and forests in Transylvania, not being noticed by the different peoples that populated the land in successive waves of immigration. Of course, there is not a single document that might prove such a theory, and from a logical viewpoint is quite unlikely that an entire people would be completely ignored by all Germanic and Eurasian settlers for such a long period.
Indeed, the Dacians have nothing or very little to do with modern Romanians and their language was not related at all with Latin ‒ there is no possible cultural or ethnic continuity between the Dacians and the Romans, and even if it was, it would be irrelevant with regards to the historic rights over Transylvania. The Vlach were not Dacians, but an Illyric people, originated in the south-western Balkans by the south-eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea ‒ namely, the present-day Albania and Slavic Macedonia.
In Roman times, the ethnic composition in the Balkans was roughly distributed as follows: Greeks in the south, Thracians in the eastern half by the Black Sea up to the Tiras River (Dniestr), Illyrians in the western half by the Adriatic Sea, and Sarmatians/Yazyg from Pannonia up to the Bosphorus, throughout all the lands of the Thracians/Dacians, with whom they coexisted. The Yazyg were direct ancestors of modern Hungarians.
There are countless proofs that utterly disavow the Daco-Roman myth. Here we intend to present some of them considering three main aspects of research: historical, religious and linguistic facts.

1. Historical Facts

The Roman occupation of Dacia was bloody and relatively short-lasted if compared with other areas where Latin language did not prevail ‒ like Britain or Pannonia, lands where Romans ruled for more than three and half centuries, or like Judea, from which Romans even deported almost the whole of the original population.
The Roman presence in Dacia (106-271 c.e.) was characterized by frequent revolts of the local inhabitants, and the occupation did never achieve a complete control of the region since different Dacian tribes kept their independence in earthen fortifications that they built on mountain peaks, and others moved outside the imperial borders. Roman historians attest that the pugnacious Dacian people were hard to surrender and even women and children fought the Roman legions. In such a background it is honestly very difficult to imagine a process of assimilation of any kind. Far from adopting the invaders' language, the Dacian groups that were not subjected by them would have reverted any process of Romanization (in case that there was any) as soon as the Romans fled away from the country. Romans evacuated Dacia not only because the Gothic invasions were at the gates, but also because they had no support of the native population that perhaps would have welcomed the Goths and in such conditions the Romans were unable to keep the control of the region ‒ on the contrary, if the Dacians would have been assimilated, the Romans would have dared to afford the Germanic hosts with the support of the local inhabitants. Even with favourable conditions, such an assimilation would have been impossible in such a short period, an unique event in the history of mankind. A further fact is that the Roman rule over Dacia did never concern the whole territory, but was only partial, and withdrawal from the eastern area begun several years before the definitive evacuation. Consequently, the theory that suggests a possible Daco-Roman blend is untenable in the light of the historic events.
Perhaps archaeology may give any hint? Dacians were skilled fortress-builders and Romans excelled in building towns and roads, notwithstanding, no remains of such constructions have yet been found in Transylvania except the Roman roads. The Roman population of Dacia was not so numerous and consisted mainly in soldiers with no particular interest in colonizing or spreading the Roman culture, so they did not build important towns but only garrison strongholds. Indeed, it was the imperial policy to allow the subdued peoples to keep their own culture and language; Romanization was not an overriding issue. When the Roman emperor decided to remove his legions from Dacia in 271 c.e., the Roman soldiers and settlers were transferred to the south, in present-day Bulgaria. It is very unlikely that also the Dacian inhabitants joined them in their relocation, as they had not any good reason to do so ‒ and in such case, the non-Romanized Dacians from beyond the boundary would have repopulated the land weeping away any trace of Roman culture. Historical records and archaeological finds show overwhelming evidence that by that time and until the 12th century c.e., the Vlach people, that spoke Romanian language and had Romanian culture and religious tradition, were dwelling in another place: in southern Illyria, from where the majority of them were slowly moving towards present-day Romania through a long-lasting sojourn in Bulgaria.
Archaeological evidences show that after the Roman evacuation the Dacians did not perform any kind of continuity, they did not dwell in the former Roman towns, which seem to have been deserted. Constructions in stone or brick were no longer made, nor monuments or inscriptions of any kind, and even burial rites changed. The Dacian culture was completely different from the Roman one, and no sort of continuity through assimilation is documented after the Roman retreat. Before the definitive disengagement in 271 c.e., the Roman emperor Gallienus (253-268) ordered the withdrawal from eastern Transylvania. From the archaeological finds pertaining to this period it emerges that peoples from the neighbouring lands ‒that may be independent Dacians‒ occupied the areas left by the Romans. It is obvious that the Dacian population of Muntenia and Moldavia, being outside the empire had never been Romanized ‒ as very likely not even the subjected Dacians were. It is a fact that the towns were the heart of social, cultural, political and economic life in the Roman Empire, and it was in them that any likely assimilation might have happened. In the case of Dacia, there was no Daco-Roman urban development, but only Roman. The towns that were built in Dacia by the Romans ceased to exist as soon as they abandoned the country. Even though the Roman settlements in Dacia were inhabited by a mixed population of Roman contingent coming from many different regions of the empire, those of Italian origin were not numerous and consisted mainly of government officials ‒ whose sojourn was usually limited in time and consequently they were often replaced by other colleagues. Only very few of the inhabitants from Italy were permanent residents. The majority of the Roman settlers came from different regions of the empire (about twenty provenances are mentioned), from the most remote areas in Africa, Spain, Britain, Asia Minor, etc. The supporters of the Daco-Roman continuity myth allege that since they had different origins, they had to know Latin in order to understand each other. As a matter of fact, only part of these settlers were Romanized, and many were not at all ‒ and anyway, they were not autochthonous people but foreign occupants.
Reports from eyewitnesses attest that Romans abandoned Dacia in a great hurry because of the attacks of the Goths and mainly because of the raids carried on by the Yazyg, who are said to have made thousands of Roman prisoners and caused enormous devastations. The Yazyg ‒Jász‒ may be properly regarded as  early Hungarians. The emperor, knowing that all the territories north of the Danube were lost, removed the Roman soldiers and inhabitants from Dacia to the lands by the southern shore of the river, in Moesia. Therefore, those Latin-speakers that sojourned in Dacia during the Roman occupation were foreigners, and their descendants cannot advance any claim on that country.
Of all the Balkan provinces of the empire, Dacia was the one on which the Roman rule was the shortest. Latin-derived languages did not survive after four centuries of Roman rule over Pannonia, Thrace, Illyria ‒except in some areas of the Adriatic coastland‒; how could it be preserved in Dacia, where Romans left almost no traces of themselves? In only 165 years, the only part of the native population that could have learnt the Latin language would have been people that had some important relationship with the Roman officials or wealthy traders that may have reached economic agreements with the imperial authorities. Another glaring example for comparison is Britannia, today England, on which Romans ruled for 365 years, where they left hundreds of remains, towns, roads, baths, etc. and where the Roman past is attested by a large amount of toponyms and even cultural features like the Scottish kilt. It is more than plausible that Latin was widely spoken in Britannia after more than three and a half centuries of Roman influence; notwithstanding, few years after the first Germanic invasions, no Latin-speaking people remained in the whole land of Britannia. It is true that English is of all Germanic languages the one having the largest number of words of Latin etymology, yet it is not a Romance tongue. Some common English toponyms show their origin in Roman terms like castrum, that derived into the endings ~caster/~cester/~chester of British towns (as Lancaster, Leicester, Winchester, etc.). If the Romanization of Dacia was so complete as alleged by the supporters of the Daco-Roman theory, a huge amount of archaeological finds and Latin toponyms should have remained, but there is nothing of all this. There is not even any account of any fierce fight of the supposedly Romanized Dacians against the Gothic invaders in defense of the Latin cultural values (as they had fought the Romans before). After the evacuation, Romans did not leave anything. They established the Danube as the last frontier, and built a series of fortifications along the river in order to prevent attacks from the other side. The Greek historian Procopius wrote by the middle of the 6th century c.e. about the fact that Romans renounced to any attempt of keeping any cultural influence or diffusion of their language in the lands of the Goths and other Germanic tribes, which means that a Latin-speaking people would have had possibilities of survival only within the imperial borders, that is south of the Danube.
Soon after the Romans left the country, Goths and Gepids pounced on Transylvania and ruled for a whole century, until they were defeated by the Huns in 375 c.e. The Huns built a powerful empire that lasted until 454 c.e. It is in this time that the Székely people established a permanent presence in Transylvania, as they were part of the Hun tribes that did not return back to the east. Goths and Gepids continued to live in the region and even though not any important political entity was founded, they remained the dominant population group and kept a relative control on the territory. One century later, the Avars (a people related with the Huns and Magyars) came from the east and ruled over the whole Carpathian Basin for two and a half centuries.
We have important documents written in this period, among which those of Procopius, a Greek chronicler and Jordanes, the Goth historian:
∙ Procopius wrote: "The River Ister (Danube) flows down from the mountains in the country of the Celts, who are now called Gauls; and it passes through a great extent of country which for the most part is altogether barren, though in some places it is inhabited by barbarians who live a kind of brutish life and have no dealings with other men. When it gets close to Dacia, for the first time it clearly forms the boundary between the barbarians, who hold its left bank, and the territory of the Romans, which is on the right". - Peri Ktismaton (Buildings), Book IV, 9-10. Procopius shows in an unequivocal manner that there was no Roman-like people dwelling in the lands on other side of the Danube, namely, in Dacia.
∙ Jordanes wrote: "I mean ancient Dacia, which the race of the Gepids now possess. This Gothia, which our ancestors called Dacia and now, as I have said, is called Gepidia, was then bounded on the east by the Roxolani, on the west by the Yazyg, on the north by the Sarmatians and Basternae and on the south by the river Danube. The Yazyg are separated from the Roxolani by the Aluta river only". -  Getica, XII, 73-74. Not even Jordanes did mention any Romans or Romanized inhabitants in Dacia, but "Yazyg, Roxolans and Sarmatians (Alans)", namely, Hungarian ancestor tribes! Jordanes also identified the Dacians, that were known by Greeks as Gæta, with the Goths, by saying: "Then, when Burebistas was king of the Goths" - Getica, XI, 67. Burebistas was actually a king of the Dacians in 60-44 b.c.e. We cannot know how much reliable this assertion of Jordanes might be, however, it is obvious that he found a noticeable resemblance between the Dacians and his own Germanic people so as to identify each other as the same, and not between Dacians and Romans. Therefore, we may conclude that it is quite likely that Dacians joined the Goths and mixed with them.
During the Avar kingdom, in the 6th century c.e., successive waves of Slavs moved from the Russian plains to the Balkans and settled in Transylvania, leaving there some place names and the vojvoda administrative system that continued under Hungarian rule. They usually adapted the Roman toponyms to their own phonetics, nevertheless, in the lands north of the lower Danube we do not find any inherited Latin toponyms: not a single name of a Roman town or any other kind of settlement was preserved. The most obvious explanation of this is that the Slavs did not find Latin-speaking inhabitants when they migrated to these territories in the 6th-7th centuries.
In 679 c.e., Khan Asparukh of the Bulgars (another Hun-related ethnos), crossed the Danube and founded a new kingdom in present-day Bulgaria in alliance with seven Slavic tribes. The Bulgars extended their rule on both sides of the lower Danube. It was the Bulgarian kingdom that exerted its influence on Transylvania ‒that was inhabited mainly by Slavic peoples‒ until the arrival of Árpád's hosts. By the mid-9th century, Bulgarians adopted Christianity according to the Byzantine rites, the very same religion practised by the majority of Romanians, and it is indeed in Bulgaria where they acquired it. Khan Boris in 865 c.e. turned his title and name into Czar Mikhail as a sign of his conversion. Slavic (Slavonic) was established as the official liturgical language, the one inherited by the Romanian Orthodox church. When the Magyars entered the Carpathian Basin by the end of the 9th century c.e., they confronted the armies of Czar Simeon of Bulgaria, that by that time ruled over Transylvania through Slavic vassal princes. The region was predominantly populated by Slavs in that period, and not any Romanic-speaking group was present. After several battles with victories on both sides, the Bulgarians lost Transylvania that was seized by the Magyars, while Muntenia and Oltenia (both regions composing present-day Walachia) were occupied by the Besenyö (Petchenegs).
It is essential to point out that there was not a single toponym in Transylvania that might have had Latin origin when the Magyars arrived in the region. Most of the place names and river names were Slavic except some few, which were not Romance anyway.
Concerning this historical period, the supporters of the Daco-Roman myth consider it to be the background for the epic accounts of the Gesta Hungarorum, which are often quoted by them with the purpose of proving that the Vlach were the inhabitants of Transylvania before Árpád conquered the land. This literary work, that belongs to the fiction genre, mentions the dukes of Bihar, Bánát and Transylvania, who are said to be respectively a Khazar, a Slav and a Vlach. There is no trace of such characters in any contemporary document because they are completely imaginary. On the other hand, very prominent personalities that were indeed quite engaged with the Magyar conquest like Emperor Arnulf of the Franks, Kings Svatopluk and Mojmir II of Moravia, Czar Simeon of Bulgaria or Leon VI of Byzantium are not mentioned at all in the Gesta Hungarorum ‒ any trustworthy history treatise would not fail to mention them. Besides this, important battles are omitted and there are many anachronisms mainly regarding peoples that were not present in the Carpathian Basin in that period, like Cumans and Vlach. The author was an anonymous writer of the 12th century c.e. that projected the situation of his time back to three centuries earlier, and his accounts are in sharp contrast with the contemporary sources that reported the Magyar conquest as eyewitnesses. Such documents attest that the peoples involved in the events related with the Magyar conquest of the Carpathian Basin were Slovenes and other Slavic tribes, Moravians, Avars, Bulgarians, Franks and Gepids, but no Romans, Vlach or Cumans. The author of Gesta Hungarorum may have been led into confusion by Slavic accounts about the fact that the Magyars seized the Danubian Basin from the Franks, that were then called (as well as Italians) "Voloch", "Vlasi" by the Slavs ‒ hence the Hungarian translation of the toponyms containing the term "frank/franc" into "olasz[i]", and the Romany name of France, "Valshi", derived from the Slavic term.
Bulgaria was annexed to Byzantium in 1018 c.e. and remained as part of that empire for almost 170 years. It is in that time that the Vlach begin to be mentioned more often, always south of the lower Danube. In that period, the last wave of the great migration of peoples arrived in the Balkans: the Kumans, that had an intensive interaction with the Vlach. By that time the immediate neighbours across the Danube on the north shore were the Petchenegs, with whom the Kumans were traditional rivals, both peoples being of the same stock. At last, the Kumans absorbed them and the present-day Walachia came to be known as "Cumania". The Kumans were characterized by their ambiguous behaviour: while they were continuously attacking Byzantium, other Kumans were serving as mercenaries in the Byzantine army. The Kumans were on both sides or else as a third party, sometimes fighting against Bulgarians and sometimes allied with them, mainly supported by the Vlach. Also Slavic kingdoms engaged Kuman mercenaries, that frequently had to fight Kuman raiders. Many of them were also in Hungary, and became an important contingent of the Hungarian army. Their character led them to be in continuous contrast with Hungarians, and as a result they were expelled and gathered the Kuman/Vlach tribes in Bulgaria. They were later requested back in Hungary, but on their way they joined the Vlachs in the revolt that led to the independence of Walachia in 1330. Few decades later, the Kumans disappeared as an ethnic entity, being assimilated by the different nations where they inhabited and becoming an important component of the Romanian nation. Then it was the first time in history that the Vlach established themselves in territories north of the Danube.
Their arrival in Transylvania happened only in the 13th century c.e., when the Hungarian kings allowed the Vlach to settle in that land, including Vlach rulers, to protect them from the Turks that had conquered Walachia.
There is still much more to say concerning the historical facts, but as it was said in the introductory note, this is only a concise consideration. So as a conclusion of this chapter, we can say that it is enough to point out that the Yazyg presence in the Carpathian Basin is contemporary with the Thracian period, and ancient toponyms and river names show overwhelming evidence of this fact, including the name of a former Romanian capital: Jassy ‒ Jászvásár (Yazyg Market).
In the Middle Ages, the term Vlach was the only one known by all authors who wrote about the ancestors of the people today called Romanian. Consequently, the name Vlach is the most appropriate and historically correct; ʹVlachʹ and ʹRomanianʹ are thus interchangeable, because there is no mention of any other people with the same characteristics.
[end article excerpt]


* "How Persia created Judaism: Persian and Jewish religion" (2016-02-14, by Michael David Magee, []


* "Enheduanna: A High Priestess of the Moon and the First Known Author in the World" (2016-12-26, [], photo caption: Rectangular, baked clay relief panel known as the “Burney Relief” or the “Queen of the Night.” (Public Domain) There is debate whether this relief depicts Inanna/Ishtar, Lilitu, or Ereshkigal.


* "Sacred Toponymy Matters: the Territory and the Map" (2013-12-07, []
* "Sacred Toponymy Matters: Framing Canaan, between Sacred Site and Jurisdiction" (2013-12-08, []


* "Ancient equivalent of tablet computer found in Turkey dig" (2014-05-10, [] [begin excerpt]: Archaeologists digging at the ancient archaeological site of Yenikapı in Turkey have uncovered a wooden notebook, a Byzantine invention which they say is the ancient equivalent of a tablet computer. The 1,200-year-old wooden tablet was found in the remains of a ship that sunk in what was once known as Theodosius Port in the ancient Constantinople and probably belonged to the ship's captain.
The rectangular object opens up like a notebook and has a sliding cover with removable tablets inside on which notes could be taken by using wax. One of the internal levels had spaces in which weights could be inserted and used as an assay balance.  Assay balances were used either to determine the content of a precious metal (usually gold) in an alloy, thus establishing the fineness of the latter (usually in carats or per cent). Or the determination of metal content (usually in per cent) in an ore.  We call it the “miracle of Yenikapı,” said the project team member Associate Professor Ufuk Kocabaş.
The sunken ship upon which the notebook was found, has been named Yenikapı 12.  The ancient wreck was in a good state of preservation, with 60 percent of the ship still intact. “Considering the amphoras in it, the ship’s route was the Black Sea. We estimate that it dates back to the 9th century and engaged in trading from Crimea to Kersonesos,” said Kocabaş. A research team from Istanbul University is working to restore the ship, with the aim of having it functional by 2015. [end excerpt]


* "From Papyrus to Parchment: The Imperial Library of Constantinople" (2016-12-06, [] [begin excerpt]: Many years after the destruction of the great libraries of the ancient world, such as the libraries of Pergamum and Alexandria, the Imperial Library of Constantinople preserved precious Ancient Greek and Latin texts for almost 1,000 years. Located in the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, the library was constructed circa 357-353 CE by the emperor Constantius II, as he became aware of the deterioration of the early text which had been written on papyrus. In the library’s scriptorium, he entrusted scribes with the arduous process of copying out the volumes from the papyrus rolls to more stable materials such as parchment or vellum. The man in charge of the scribes was thought to have been Themestios, working directly under Constantius II in the supervision of the library.
The Emperor Valens, circa 372 CE, continued the efforts of his predecessor, Constantius II, by employing four Greek and three Latin calligraphers. From this, the majority of the Greek classics that we possess today are known through the Byzantine copies originating from the Imperial Library of Constantinople. However, certain tomes were given preference over others. Those working as scribes, copying the texts from papyrus to parchment, dedicated a great deal of time and attention to preserving what they considered to be the worthiest. Older works, like Homer and Hellenistic histories, were given greater priority over later Latin works. Similarly, more notable names, such as Sophocles and his contemporary philosophers, were prioritized over lesser known names. [end excerpt]
Charlemagne (left) and his eldest son, Pepin the Hunchback. Tenth-century copy of a lost original from about 830.

* "The House of Wisdom: One of the Greatest Libraries in History" (2017-01-01, [] [begin excerpt]: Adding to the list of names among the greatest libraries of the past, the Bayt al-Hikmah (translated as ‘The House of Wisdom’) was established in Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, around the 8th century by Caliph Harun al-Rashid (reign from 786-809 CE) during the time of the Islamic Golden Age. The center continued to flourish under al-Rashid’s son, al-Ma’mun, who is sometimes attributed as the original founder of the House of Wisdom.
This recognition about who was the original founder of the center can become confusing and further details explaining the order of events might assist in this understanding. Al-Rashid was the one who gathered most of the different books, manuscripts and objects coming from his father and grandfather, and started the collection. Eventually this compilation of different materials became so large that al-Ma’mun had to build an extension to the original building, turning it to a large academy which, then, came to be known as the House of Wisdom. It became one of the greatest centers of medieval wisdom and contributed greatly to the scientific movement which had started in the earlier centuries.
The House of Wisdom was originally created in order to house translators and preserve their works but it soon included additional research activities in the areas of medicine, science and astronomy. Two of the most important Caliphs, al-Rashid and al-Ma’mun, had personal interests in scientific works. This library was remarkably well organized, having separate rooms for copiers, binders, librarians, and an astronomical observatory.

Coming of wealth
Compared to its surroundings, Baghdad was a major center for the spreading knowledge in the areas of Arts, Science and Philosophy. It became a great center not only for wisdom but also for material wealth. In addition, charitable donations were encouraged in Islamic law. This created a path to facilitate the sharing of ideas and wealth necessary in order to invest in the continuous expansion of this institution.

Works and scholars
Different types of specialists worked under the House of Wisdom: translators, scientists, scribes, authors, researchers of different subjects, and writers. Many manuscripts and books of a variety of philosophical and scientific subjects were translated there and held as of great importance for the community. The House of Wisdom was open to both men and women. Students of all ethnicities and faiths were welcomed, and those scholars who were persecuted by the Byzantine Empires were encouraged to study there. Many different languages were spoken in that facility including Arabic, Farsi, Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac, Greek and Latin.

It should not come as a surprise the implementation of new technological developments since the House of Wisdom was open to a great diversity of cultures and ideas. Brought from China, paper became a new and cheaper material for writing, which was previously done on parchment from the skin of animals, a much more time consuming and expensive process.

Al-Ma-mun, scholar and patron -
Al-Ma’mun was a scholar himself and perhaps this influenced his desire of wanting to make the institute the greatest center for knowledge in the world. On Isabella Bengoechea’s words: "Caliph al-Mamun was also himself adept in the branches of knowledge taught at the House of Wisdom, including medicine, philosophy and astrology, and often visited the scholars there to discuss their research. At this time astrology was held in the highest esteem as a science in Arab society. The stars and planets were perceived to influence events on earth and astrology was thus carried out with the greatest attention to detail."
Often, al-Ma’mun would assign handpicked renowned scholars to perform specific translations of works. An example of such was the selection of the famous scholar Abu Yousuf Ya'qoub Al-Kindi, who had an impressive level of qualifications which included being a physician, philosopher, mathematician, geometer, logician, and astronomer, to be the one in charge of translating of the works of Aristotle.
Some records stated that, in order to encourage translators and scholars to add works in Arabic to the library, al-Ma’mun would pay them the equivalent weight of each complete book in gold. Undoubtedly, much knowledge about the past would have been lost if not for the continuous works of translation conducted in the House of Wisdom. Baghdad was a very prosperous and rich city, which allowed Al-Ma’mun to spare no expenses to purchase more works, including those from other countries.
In Subhi Al-Azzawi’s words, “It is said that Al-Ma'moun had heard about the magnificent Sicily Library, so he wrote to the King of Sicily asking him for the entire content of the Sicily Library (which was rich in philosophical and scientific books of the Greeks) to incorporate it in the library of the House of Wisdom. The King on the advice of his bishops (that the contents of these books did no good to the people of the Ancient World) sent the content of the Sicilian Library to the Caliph.”

The end of the center of knowledge -
Unfortunately, Bayt al-Hikmah felt into the hands of the dark destiny which affected many structures of the past. The institution was completely destroyed by the Mongols in 1258 CE. They brutally killed the Caliph’s court and almost his entire family.
The Caliph was kept alive and forced to watch all the killing and destruction. They killed the scholars and threw all the books into the Tigris river. It is said that the river flowed black and red for days from the ink and blood.

- Cem Nizamoglu, ’The house of Wisdom: Baghdad’s Intellectual Powerhouse’. (accessed Dec 10, 2016)
History of Libraries (accessed on Dec 9, 2016)
Isabella Bengoechea, ‘Iraq’s Golden Age: The Rise and Fall of the House of Wisdom’ (accessed Dec 10, 2016)
Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor, ‘The Significance of the Bayt Al-Hikma (House of Wisdom) in Early Abbasid Caliphate’. (accessed Dec 10, 2016)
Steemit , ‘House of Wisdom: Ride and Fall of the Ancient Library at Baghdad’. (accessed on Dec 10, 2016)
Subhi Al-Azzawi, ‘The Abbasids’ House of Wisdom in Baghdad’. (accessed Dec 10, 2016)

Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle were highly respected in the medieval Islamic world.

The Byzantine embassy of John the Grammarian to Ma'mun (depicted left) from Theophilos (depicted right)


New Rome is established, and the Bishop of Rome secedes some three hundred and fifty years later... to fill in for its role as World See, the ruins of old Rome are given a "thousand year history".

* "Portolano Laurenziano Gaddiano [Laurentian Sea Atlas, or, the Medicean Atlas], 1351" (retrieved 2014-11-15, [], updated (retrieved 2017-01-16) []

pgs. 111 to 114 (R. A. Skelton):
largely borrowed from the Tartar Relation or a similar text. The sources of the names and legends are examined in detail below.' Although they are carefully written, some fragmentary forms and corruptions point to errors by the copyist or to his failure to read or understand what he transcribed.' That his original was a map containing (in the manner of medieval carto-graphy) drawings of monarchs with pavilions, cities, or standards is suggested by the frequent indication of kingdoms as Rex ... or /mperium . . .10
3. THE MAP AND ITS PRECURSORS Before proceeding to analyze the geographical delineations of the map in detail, we may briefly survey the antecedent materials, cartographic and textual, to which comparative study of it must refer. It is, of course, not to be supposed that its anonymous maker had direct access to all surviving earlier works with which his shows any affinity in substance or design; but iden-tification of common elements will help us to reconstruct the source or sources upon which he drew. Moreover, in the light thrown on the cartographer's work-methods and professional per-sonality by his treatment of sources which are to some extent known, we may visualize his mode of compilation or construction from materials which have not come down to us. We may even catch a glimpse of these materials, as they are reflected in the map before us, and of the channels by which they could have reached a workshop in Southern Europe.' As noted above, the representation of Europe, Africa, and Asia in the map plainly derives from a circular or oval prototype. Even when the world maps of the later Middle Ages, drawn for the most part in the scriptoria of monasteries, attempted a faithful delineation of known geographical facts (outlines of coasts, courses of rivers, location of places), they still respected the conventional pattern which Christian cosmography had in part inherited from the Romans and in part created. Until the second half of the fifteenth century, the habitable world con-tinued to be represented as a circular disc surrounded by the ocean sea, with Jerusalem at the center and east (with the Earthly Paradise) to the top; and the symmetrical pattern of the T-0 (or "wheel") diagrams was still reflected in the more elaborate mappaemundi. Underlying their wealth of geographical detail and (in some cases) legendary lore, this was the model for the world maps of Hereford and Ebstorf (thirteenth century), of Fra Paolino Minorita and of Petrus Vesconte (ca. 1320), of Ranulf Higden (ca. 1350), of Andrea Bianco (1436), of Giovanni Leardo (1442—
Variations of this basic pattern were introduced to admit new geographical information or ideas or new cartographic concepts. Some of these changes are shown in summary form in the 8. See below, pp. 127-43. 9. E.g. in Europe, Apusia, aben; in Africa, Bela . . . rex, Rex Marr; in Asia, names relating to Carpini's mission. See below, pp. 141-42. io. Such drawings were a regular feature of mappaemundi and of the Catalan charts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The use of the word Rex . . . plainly implies an iconographic representation of a monarch. r. This assumes that the ascription of the manuscript to a scriptorium of the Upper Rhineland is valid (see above, p. 16). 72. For these maps, see in general K. Miller, Mappaemundi (1895-98) ; C. R. Beazley, The Dawn of Modern Geog-raphy, Vol. 3 (1906) ; M. C. Andrews, "The study and classification of mediaeval mappae mundi", Archaeologia, Vol. 75 (1926) ; R. Uhden, "Zur Herkunft and Systematik der mittelalterlichen Weltkarten", Geographische Zeitschrift, Vol. 37 (1931) ; G. H. T. Kimble, Geography in the Middle Ages (1938) ; and separately published facsimiles of, and memoirs on, individual maps. See also the Bibliographical Postscript, p. 240, and Fig. 2 (p. 156).

The Vinland Map table opposite. From the early fourteenth century the representation of Asia and the Far East is amplified by information from the missions to the Tartars or (exceptionally) the travels of Marco Polo, and from the middle of the fifteenth century by the reports of Nicole de' Conti. The delineation of Africa and the Atlantic islands, in the fifteenth century, is progressively extended and improved by the Portuguese voyages of discovery and by the information of mer-chants and other travelers in the Sudan and Near East. The maps in the Byzantine manu-scripts of Ptolemy, brought to Italy at the beginning of the century, introduced a radically dif-ferent world picture, especially in regard to the Indian Ocean. The circular form of the medieval world map, in the hands of some fourteenth- and fifteenth-century cartographers, is superseded by an oval or ovoid; and even in the fourteenth century rectangular world maps begin to appear, mainly under the influence of nautical cartography. The traditional orientation, with east to the top, came to be abandoned by more progressive cartographers, who drew their maps with north to the top (following the fashion of the chart-makers) or south to the top (perhaps under the influence of Arab maps). Most of these variations in the form and design of world maps were adapted from the practice of nautical charts and, in the fifteenth century, of the Ptolemaic maps. Like the maps of Ptolemy, the portolan charts—or compass charts—were drawn with north to the top; and they were as a rule rectangular in shape." These were not documents of the study, but practical works whose design betrays their function, as aids to navigation by compass or wind-direction. Hence their orientation; hence, too, the network of rhumbs or bearing lines radiating from centers or windroses arranged on the circumference of a circle. The drawing of the coasts is characterized by geometrical forms (arcs for bays, pointed headlands, rectangular or crescent shapes for islands) and by the writing of names at right angles to the coastline. The "normal" portolan charts of the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries embraced the shores of the Mediterranean, of the Black Sea, and of western Europe. Those of Italian authorship, with few exceptions, represented only features on or adjoining the coasts, with the more impor-tant rivers which carried trade inland; but charts drawn in the workshops of Catalonia and Majorca attempted a more detailed delineation of the interior. The world maps executed by chart-makers—Petrus Vesconte, Abraham Cresques, Andrea Bianco—tended to reproduce fea-tures of design customary in nautical cartography, particularly the network of rhumb-lines. If the Vinland Map was drawn in the second quarter of the fifteenth century, and perhaps early in the last decade of that quarter, it would take its place, in the table of world maps oppo-site, after that of Andrea Bianco and would be contemporary with the output of Leardo, whose three maps are dated 1442, 1448, and 145– (1452 or 1453). While the work of Leardo is con-siderably more sophisticated in compilation and more "learned" in its incorporation of varied geographical materials than that of Bianco, the world maps of both these Venetian cartog-raphers plainly depend for their general design on models of the fourteenth century. Whether and to what extent the author of the Vinland Map made use of textual information for certain parts of his map, and what its character may have been, will emerge from the de-13. On the orientation and general design of the portolan charts, see Theobald Fischer, Sammlung mittelalter-licher Welt- and Seekarten italienischen Ursprungs (1886); A. E. Nordenskiold, Periplus (1897); K. Kretschmer, Die italienischen Portolane des Mittelalters (s9o9). 

The Vinland Map tailed analysis in the following chapters. The textual sources on which the mapmaker could have drawn in this period may be roughly grouped: (a) Geographical treatises of classical authors (Strabo, Pliny, Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela) and of medieval writers (Vincent of Beauvais, John Sacrobosco, Pierre d'Ailly, the fourteenth-century Libro del Conoscimiento). (b) Travelers' reports (e.g. for Asia, Marco Polo and missionaries or merchants before and after him, NicolO de' Conti; for Africa, the Portuguese voyages along the west coast, the journeys of merchants into the Sahara or up the Nile). (c) The texts contained in the manuscripts which accompany, or formerly accompanied, the Vinland Map, namely the surviving books (XXI—XXIV) of Vincent's Speculum Historiale, the conjecturally missing sections of the Speculum, the Tartar Relation of C. de Bridia describing Carpini's mission, and perhaps other texts which contributed to delineations or legends on the map 14 Of these three groups, the last was plainly that most accessible to the cartographer. The degree to which he limited his compilation processes to this group of materials (so far as we can reconstruct them), or extended his search for geographical data beyond it, will help to determine the character of his map, as a representation of the known world, and the purpose for which it was drawn.
4. THE TRIPARTITE WORLD IN THE MAP The outlines of the three continents form an ellipse or oval, the proportions between the longer horizontal axis and the vertical axis" being about 2 : 1. Since the map is oriented with north to the top, the longer axis lies east—west, and the two greater arcs at top and bottom are formed by the north coasts of Europe and Asia and by the coasts of Africa respectively. The elliptical out-line is interrupted, in its western quadrant, by the Atlantic Ocean and by the gulfs or seas of western Europe, and in its eastern by a great gulf named Magnum mare Tartarorum; the curvilinear outline is however continued southeastward from Northern Asia by the coasts of the large islands at the outer edge of this gulf. The only parts of the design which fall outside the elliptical framework are the representations of Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, in the west, and (less certainly) the outermost Atlantic islands and the northwest-pointing peninsular ex-tension of Scandinavia. It is not necessary to assume that the prototype followed by the cartographer was also oval in form. In fact his map has striking affinities of outline and nomenclature with the circular world map in Andrea Bianco's atlas of 1436, preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice!' The features common to both maps, and in some cases peculiar to them, are sufficiently numerous and marked (as their detailed analysis will demonstrate) to place it beyond reasonable doubt that the author of the Vinland Map had under his eyes, if not Bianco's world map, one which was very similar to it or which served as a common original for both maps. If this original was circular, the anonymous cartographer's elongation of the outline to form an ellipse may be
14. See above, pp. 25-27. 15. As measured between the extremities of the inked design. 16. See below, pp. 125-26; also Pl. VI and Fig. 2.


* "German Archaeologist and Businessman blew up entire 9 levels of Archaeological the remains of Historical Troy with Dynamite" (2016-11-06, [] [begin excerpt]: The excavation carried out by Schliemann of the nine levels of archaeological remains used dynamite, including the level that is presumably the historical Troy, has been widely criticized by the historians and archaeologists alike who deem the action a destruction of the significant historical artifacts.
Although the names given to the sites’ levels by Schliemann are still retained, a number of subsequent archaeological surveys of the site reveals that the one level that Schliemann named as the historical Troy is overwhelmingly inaccurate.
D.G. Easton wrote in an article published in The Classical World in which he criticized Schliemann as someone who essentially lacked the ability to separate fact from hearsay and interpretation.
Easton goes on to suggest that even in 1872, Frank Calvert could observe that the pottery that Troy II revealed had to be at least hundreds of years too early to be the real Troy of the Trojan War; this claim was later proved when Mycenaean pottery was discovered in 1890 from Troy VI. [...]
A number of other prominent scholars and archaeologists have been outspoken about the anomalies in Schliemann’s work; Professor William Calder in 1972 claimed to have uncovered several possible anomalies in Schliemann work during a commemoration of Schliemann birthday of all places. [end excerpt]


* "There is an incredible ‘Lost’ underground city located beneath the Pyramids of Giza, and despite the fact that only a few know about it today, it was extremely well documented in the past" ( [] [begin excerpt]:
Media reports in the 1930’s described subterranean chambers and passageways located between the Temple of the ‘Solar-men’ located on the plateau and the temple of the Sphinx in the Giza Valley.
Located in the middle between the Great Sphinx and the Great Pyramid, four enormous vertical shafts, each approximately eight feet square, leading into inner chambers through solid limestone were also discovered. „…It is called “Campbell’s Tomb” on the Masonic and Rosicrucian plans, and “that shaft complex,” said Dr. Selim Hassan, “ended in a spacious room, in the center of which was another shaft that descended to a roomy court flanked with seven side chambers…”.
According to reports, inside of the secret rooms were huge, sealed sarcophagi of basalt and granite, 18 feet high.
In 1935, when  Dr. Selim Hassan was exploring the area he wrote: „…We are hoping to find some monuments of importance after clearing out this water. The total depth of these series of shafts is more than 40 meters or more than 125 feet… In the course of clearing the southern part of the subway, there was found a very fine head of a statue which is very expressive in every detail of the face…“.
In addition to the above, Dr. Selim Hassan also reported the discovery of three inner and outer courts and a room they called the ‘Chapel of offerings,’ cut into a massive rock outcrop found between Campbell’s Tomb and the Great Pyramid. Reports indicate that at the center of the chapel are three ornate vertical pillars positioned in a triangular-shaped layout. The pillars are extremely important points in the report since their existence is believed to have been recorded in the Bible.
It is believed that Ezra, the initiated Torah writer had knowledge of the existence of the passages and large chambers beneath Giza even before he wrote the Torah.
Interestingly, reports of ‘sophisticated moving machines’ discovered at Giza, together with a previously unknown subterranean city are found in an article written by the Sunday Express of 7 July 1935.

However, despite extensive ancient texts documenting the existence of vast tunnels, chambers and passageways underneath Giza, Egyptian Authorities have long denied the existence of these, together with a number of other incredible discoveries in Egypt.
According to reports, the now ‘inaccessible’ underground city can be accessed from inside the Sphinx (but other parts as well), with stairs cut into solid rock, leading down to the cavern system below the bedrock of the river Nile. The huge, complex, underground system below the Giza Plateau extends east, leading towards Cairo.
In an article written in 1972 the following statement was made: “No one should pay any attention to the preposterous claims in regard to the interior of the Great Pyramid or the presumed passageways and unexcavated temples and halls beneath the sand in the Pyramid district made by those who are as associated with the so-called, secret cults or mystery societies of Egypt and the Orient.
These things exist only in the minds of those who seek to attract the seekers for mystery, and the more we deny the existence of these things, the more the public is led to suspect that we are deliberately trying to hide that which constitutes one of the great secrets of Egypt. It is better for us to ignore all of these claims than merely deny them. All of our excavations in the territory of the Pyramid have failed to reveal any underground passageways or halls, temples, grottos , or anything of the kind except the one temple adjoining the Sphinx.” [end excerpt]
* "The dawn of civilization : Egypt and Chaldæa" (1910) []
* The Origin and Significance of the Great Pyramid, by C. Staniland Wake, [1882], at, pg. 93, Appendix 2 []

* "Pyramid" pg. 1 [], pg. 2 []
with a set of photos and observations describing the unique construction methods of the Giza Great Pyramid blocks

* "New facts about the pyramids: a new miracle of the Qur’an Last scientific discovery stated the following: French and U.S. researchers assert that the huge stones used by the Pharaohs to build the pyramids are just clay that has been heated at high temperatures…" ( [], photo caption:
The picture shows Professor Michel Barsoum standing next to the Great Pyramid. He stress that these stones were poured into molds of clay! This what he proved in his researches after results of long experiments that these stones are not natural. Pro. Michel Barsoum confirmed after Electronic microscope analysis that they are a result of a quick interaction between clay, limestone and water at high temperatures.

* ( [] [begin excerpt]: If the Jews had been living in Egypt for centuries as slaves, surely they would have noticed the pyramids and the Sphinx? Strangely, neither of these great architectural wonders of the world are mentioned even once in the Old Testament! [...]
Some stories state the pyramids were built by slaves, but history shows us the pyramid builders were willing volunteers, as the village of the pyramid builders attests.
And the fourth aspect of this millennia-old Old Testament fraud was the label of pharaoh, which no Egyptian document ever uses. But the leader of the Mizraim tribe was called Faraon, which made the switch from Hebrew to Greek and the creation of a villainous pharaoh many centuries later an easy trick to pull off. Egypt, one of the best documented of all ancient civilizations, never once used the term pharaoh.
This is truly a tale of two Egypts: Egypt was mentioned in the Bible around 700 times; the Israelites were not mentioned once in the Egyptian records.
The 5th century BC historian Herodotus, commonly known as “the father of history”, never mentioned pharaohs, only kings. Herodotus also never mentioned Israel, repeatedly mentioned Palestine, Syria and the Phoenicians, never mentioned Jews or Canaanites, and never mentioned any Jewish holy temple.
But more than anything else, it was the insult to Ancient Egypt’s extremely enlightened religious philosophy — moral practices that have never been equalled by the civilizations that came later — that compelled Ezzat to defend the honor of a remarkable culture that survived for the better part of three millennia, longer – you make take note — than any other culture in world history.
“Deceitfully linking the story of Moses and his Pharaoh has tarnished the image of one of humanity’s greatest civilizations,” Ezzat writes. “Ancient Egypt has been stabbed in the heart by this two-thousand year duplicity. And this deception is likely to continue if we don’t expose the truth about the Israelite stories and their Arabic origin and the Septuagint fraud.”
Corrupt Jewish translators -
In the 2nd century BC, the Hebrew bible was translated from Aramaic to Greek at the legendary Library of Alexandria. Seventy Jewish scribes, hence the designation of the Septuagint Bible, were assigned this task by the Ptolemies in which they cunningly replaced this obscure tribal leader Faraon with the mighty Egypt and its king. The Greek version, with this malicious distortion of ancient history, has been the source for all translations of the Bible worldwide ever since.
The Septaguint deception had been the result of a Greek-Jewish bond very similar to nowadays’ American-Israeli one. (Controlling and manipulating world superpowers — ancient and modern — is obviously an old Jewish proficiency also demonstrable in the old Jewish/Persian arrangement that led to the release from Babylonian Captivity and the complicity with the Roman Empire to control and contain Christianity.)
Replacing the Arabic town of Mizraim/Misr with pharaonic Egypt in the stories of the Patriarchs has not only distorted the Israelite stories but the historiography of the whole ancient Near East. [end excerpt]

The Great Pyramids have no parallel anywhere else on Earth, though some may believe Antarctica would be a place to look [] []


History of the depictions of Palestine & Jerusalem []

1759: Johannes Aegidius van Egmont, John Heyman (of Leydon), Travels Through Part of Europe, Asia Minor, the Islands of the Archipelago, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mount Sinai, &c. &c.:[264] The Jews of Jerusalem are divided into three sects, the Karaites, who adhere to the letter of the Scripture, without admitting any comments, or glosses; the Rabbinists, who receive for indubitable truths, all the comments and traditions so well known in the world, and are hence much more superstitious than the former; the third are the Askenites, who come from Germany, and are known among their brethren by the name of new converts; not being descended from the twelve tribes. [...] Besides these three sects, there is in the country of Palestine a fourth sort of Jews, but sworn enemies to the others, I mean the Samaritans; these have frequently endeavoured by the arts of bribery to obtain the privilege of living in Jerusalem, and in order to accomplish this design, have lavished away above five hundred purses. (Aegidius and Heyman 1759, p. 389 & p. 390

Turkey in Asia. (By Frances Bowen. 1810) []


* "How Venice Rigged The First, and Worst, Global Financial Collapse" (1995-01, by Paul B. Gallagher) [] [begin excerpt]:
The critical difference between 1345 and 1995, was that in the Fourteenth century there were as yet no nations. No governments had the national sovereignty to control the banks and the creation of credit; or, to force these banks into bankruptcy in an orderly way, and replace fictitious bank credit and money with national credit. Nor was the Papacy, the world leadership of the Church, fighting against the debt-looting of the international banks then as it is today; in fact, at that time it was allied with, aiding, and abetting them.
The result was a disaster for the human population, which fell worldwide by something like 25 percent between 1300 and 1450 (in Europe, by somewhere between 35 percent and 50 percent from the 1340’s collapse to the 1440’s).
This global crash, caused by the policies and actions of banks which finally completely bankrupted themselves, has been blamed by historians ever since on a king—poor Edward III of England. Edward revolted against the seizure and looting of his kingdom by the Bardi and Peruzzi banks, by defaulting on their loans, starting in 1342. But King Edward’s national budget was dwarfed by that of either the Bardi or Peruzzi; in fact, by 1342, his national budget had become a sub-department of theirs. Their internal memos in Florence spoke of him contemptuously as “Messer Edward”; “we shall be fortunate to recover even a part” of his debts, they sniffed in 1339. [end excerpt]

* "Venetian Oligarchy" []
* "Stalin researched the Rothschilds and Venetian Aristocracy" (2014, Interview with Andrei Fursov - Russian historian, sociologist, writer) []
Also see:
* "Rothschilds in deal over Tsar's love letters to mistress" (2001-05-19, []
* "Returned from Russia: Nazi Archival Plunder in Western Europe and Recent Restitution Issues" book page (2013, Institute of Art & Law, []
*  "Returned from Russia: Nazi Archival Plunder in Western Europe and Recent Restitution Issues" book advertisement (2007, Institute of Art & Law, (.pdf) []



* "Scientists Discover 17th Century Coins of French King in Siberia; While exploring centuries-old settlements in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region in northwestern Siberia, a team of archaeologists discovered ancient counting tokens of Louis XIV King of France and Navarre, also known as Louis the Great, whose 72-year-long reign is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history" (2016-11-11, []:
The excavations took place at the upper reaches of the Taz River near the Kikkiakki village of Krasnoselkupsky district in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region, where the settlements of a very special ethnic group have been located for centuries. Researchers from the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences have been studying these sites since 2013. Numerous interesting finds were discovered there during the latest excavations, the leading researcher Olga Poshekhonova told Sputnik.
"This year we explored the archaeological sites of 17-19th centuries, which correspond with the Northern Selkups, one of the small indigenous peoples of the Russian North," said Olga, who is a researcher at the Laboratory of Anthropology and Ethnology at the Institute of Problems of Development of the North, the RAS. "As a result of the excavation, we received a rich collection of artifacts relating to the material and spiritual culture of the Northern Selkups."
"We found seven identical counting tokens with a portrait of Louis XIV and an inscription ‘LOVIS XIV.ROY D.FR.ET DE NAV' — Louis XIV King of France and Navarre," she revealed. The coins' reverse says "RECHN.PFENING CORN.LAVEFERSK" — Counting Token of Cornelius Lauffer, which means he issued these tokens. There is also an emblem in the shape of a shield with three lilies and a crown above it.
It may seem unusual that such coins were found in the centuries-old settlements in northwestern Siberia, but not for the Russian archaeologists.
"Counting tokens are not uncommon for the sites of this age in Western Siberia. Dutch, French, German coins can be found here. When they were removed from circulation, Russian representatives specifically purchased those tokens at the price of scrap metal and transported them to Siberia to exchange with the local peoples. All the aboriginals liked to use the coins to decorate their costumes: hats, dresses, coats," Olga explained.
Various beads and fine art plastics were used for these purposes, too. The Selkups, who were mainly engaged in hunting and fishing, exchanged skins and fish for these little decorations. That is why each coin has two holes for hanging or sewing, according to the researcher.
The other findings include artifacts produced by the Selkups' themselves: arrowheads, knives and all sorts of brass and bronze costume jewelry, as well as Russian-produced items, also brought to Siberia for barter, the scientist added.
"Among the most interesting findings, there are a few iron knifes with beautiful enamel handles of Russian production. We have also found a handle with brass plates covered with intricate patterns, created by Russian masters," Olga continued.
"Interestingly, we discovered ancient jewelry of West Siberian and Ural region production which dates back to long before the cultural layers they were found in. These include earrings, embroidered patches, noisy pendants and pots. There were also notable sets of Russian buttons, dating from the 12th to the 18th century," the researcher said.
Olga Poshekhonova also revealed that German colleagues joined the Russian team during these excavations:
"We had a joint expedition with the staff of the German Archaeological Institute, and we are sure to continue our cooperation next year. This time the Germans visited us as guests: they were just getting acquainted with the subject of their future research. We jointly conducted a small paleobotanical research on the northern Selkup settlements of the 17-18th centuries and more ancient settlement of the 10-12th centuries."
The German researchers, interested in rich Russian ethno-archaeological materials, were impressed by what they saw, according to Olga:
"They were amazed by the modern local Northern Selkups. This people, as well as the Nenets, the Khanty and the Mansi, have a well preserved culture, lifestyle, housekeeping manners, etc. The Selkups adapted to the harsh conditions of the North, organically using the landscape as much as possible."
"The economy and agriculture of the Northern Selkups are still based on fishing, hunting and reindeer herding for transportation. Our colleagues from Germany noted that houses are surprisingly similar to the Neolithic and Eneolithic dugouts, which are usually explored by the archaeologists in their excavations," the researcher said.
"The German archaeologists were simply fascinated by Selkups' fishing weir, one of the most ancient and very effective ways of fishing in small rivers. It was invented a long time ago, but Selkups still use it to this day. This method is a lazy one: all you need to do is just put wooden fish traps across the river and then come back every morning to take out the catch. It's nothing unusual for us — we have been using this data for historical reconstructions for a while — but our foreign colleagues were surprised," Olga concluded.
Photos captions:
- Counting tokens with a portrait of Louis XIV King of France and Navarre

- Tips of combat arrows of Selkups’ production (17-19th centuries)

- Ring pendants for woman's waist produced in the 17-19th centuries by the Northern Selkups

- The figure of a lion that is supposed to be of Western European production

- Abandoned winter dugout at the Selkups’ settlement near the Shirta River (constructed and used at the beginning of 2000s)

- A modern "deer house" at the Selkups’ cattle camp near the Shirta River, an inflow of the Taza River. It is built to protect the deer from midges


* "A changing view: Tales of the Arctic through the ages" (2017-05-12, []

* "Archaeology, The Low Chronology Paradigm and the "state of indescribable confusion"; Problems in Dating Biblical Events and Periods; Notes on dating problems, archaeology, Low chronology paradigm from, Turin papyri and Manetho to Finkelstein and E. Mazar", (.pdf) [], text (no footnotes) [], abstract:
What is the nature and relationship of the two classes of data now available for writing a history of ancient Israel; texts and archaeological evidence? This is a question raised by Dever (Dever 1997) and as relevant today as it was when he raised it. This paper seeks to take a short but critical look at the low chronology paradigm of Israel Finkelstein the archaeologist. In this paradigm archaeological data is given priority over the literary sources of contained in the biblical text. In this paper we will review the paradigm and critique it. We will then go on to look at some of the limitations in using archaeological data to reconstruct history. We will do this by reviewing the situation in the dating of Egyptian chronology, through Manetho, a criticism of the consensus and this will set the problem into relief by observing how difficult it is to see which Pharaoh reigned alongside King Solomon using archaeological data even of some of the most reliable kind. We finish with seeing how Egyptian Chronology is sometimes used to date biblical events despite the lack of absolute dates. This gives the scholar pause in being too certain about dating anything in the second millennium BCE and backwards. The paper is in the form of notes so the result will be very limited in application and yet they need to be noted.

"Christian" motif on non-Christian Emperor... note the cherub (winged child) and halo around the Emperor.
* []: Silver Sassanian dish found on river Synya, dated back 4 - 5 centuries AD

* "Islam and Literacy in Northern Mozambique: Historical Records on the Secular Uses of the Arabic Script" (.pdf) []
When the Portuguese arrived at the end of the fifteenth century, they found Muslim merchant communities thriving and noted that Mozambican coast was part of Indian Ocean trading networks as well as the Swahili World. These communities used Arabic as the commercial lingua franca since at least the eleventh century.
Aware of Muslim preeminence in international trade, the kings of Portugal gave letters in Arabic to their sailors and traders to be presented to the rulers of the places where they went ashore. The sixteenth-century chronicler Damião de Goes mentions several specific cases. For example, when admiral Pedro Alvares arrived in Kilwa on July 20, 1500, he said to the king, Ibrahimu (Abraemo in the original) that he brought letters from his lord, the king of Portugal, Dom Manuel, delivered the following day. “[Ibrahimu] forthwith gave to the scribes to read in Arabic, and showed a great pleasure at the contents thereof.”  Similar letters were also given to the king of Malindi. When the Portuguese installed Mohamed Anconi as the king of Kilwa in July 1505, documents were drawn to that effect in Arabic and Portuguese.

* " ‘Pompeii-like’ discovery made in Rome during metro construction" (2017-06-27, [] [begin excerpt]:
Archaeologists were examining a 10-meter-deep (32 ft) hole near the ancient Aurelian Walls when they uncovered the ruins of a two-roomed building preserved by a fire.
The leg of a table or chair, two tables and a wooden railing were also discovered, along with black and white mosaic tiles and frescoed wall fragments.  [...]
“The discovery of a charred, wooden ceiling represents a unique event for the city of Rome,” the ministry said, as finding preserved wood is rare.
The dog’s skeleton was preserved in a crouched position, suggesting it was trapped in the building during the fire. Archaeologists also discovered a skeleton of a smaller animal, which has not yet been identified, Il Tempo reports []. [...]
The frescoes date from the time of Emperor Septimius Severus, who ruled from the end of the 2nd century to the early 3rd.
The ruins may have been part of an aristocrat's home at nearby Celian Hill or from a nearby military barracks.
The Geophysics and Vulcanology National Institute is investigating whether the fire may have been caused by an earthquake, local newspaper, La Repubblica reports []. [end excerpt]


A map showing Doggerland, a region of northwest Europe home to Mesolithic people before sea level rose to inundate this area and create the Europe we are familiar with today.
Published November 30, 2012
Written by National Geographic Society

BRITAIN (886AD) | 'The situation after the Treaty of Nottingham at the conclusion of The Dane-Anglo War.'

JUST BEFORE THE END of Consantinople (the tiny break in Turkish control of the South Black Sea coast) Timur invaded from Persia. The Ottomans were defeated at the Battle of Ankara. The navies of Venice and Genoa RESCUED THE OTTOMAN ARMY AND CARRIED IT TO SAFETY IN TURKISH-HELD EUROPE! Also, the small, landlocked blue enclave in the West Anatolian mountains? That was PHILADELPHIA. Philadelphia held out for 60 YEARS!

1912 - Map of Pompeii by archer

A carbonised by volcanic ash loaf of bread with the stamp ‘Property of Celer, Slave of Q. Granius Verus’, Herculaneum (near Pompeii)

House of the Vettii, Pompeii

Ares and Aphrodite; from Pompeii- Napoli, Museo Archeologico

The Roman word for phallus was fascinum. It was the ultimate symbol of power, luck, and fertility. A large penis symbolized everything positive. Shops and brothels hung images of them on their walls for good luck, accompanied by the words, "Here lies happiness." They believed that the male member was the source of life. Bas relief from Pompeii, Hic Habitat Felicitas

Photos of ruins at Herculaneum []

How long must bodies be lain before being declared "ancient"? Are mass-burials miscalculated as being more ancient because of contaminants within the matrix utilized for dating methods? The photo graphs accompanying the following article instigated such a thought.
* "New Mass Grave Found of Iraq Speicher Massacre Martyrs" (2017-07-17, []

Korea has ruins which show a repurposing of megalithic laser-cut stones.
* "Ruins of toilet from ancient kingdom unearthed" (2017-09-27, Yonhap newswire) []

* "Shipwreck’s 500yo maritime astrolabe ‘rolls back history’ " (2017-10-24, [] [begin excerpt]:
A shipwreck explorer has revealed the discovery of the oldest ever maritime astrolabe. The navigational tool dates back more than 500 years to Europe’s ‘Age of Discovery’.
The astrolabe, which mariners used to measure the altitude of the sun, was discovered on a Portuguese explorer called the ‘Esmerelda.’ The ship sank off the coast of Oman during a storm in May 1503.
The ‘Esmerelda’ is the earliest shipwreck from Europe’s ‘Age of Discovery’ to be found and scientifically investigated by a team of archaeologists.
It pre-dates the nearest Iberian shipwreck in age by 30 to 50 years. It was part of a fleet led by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, who discovered the sea route from Europe to India via the ‘Horn of Africa.’ [end excerpt]
- Photo caption: A handout picture released on October 24, 2017 by Blue Water Recoveries shows the world's oldest maritime astrolabe, which guided Portuguese explorers on a perilous voyage to India at the beginning of the 16th century.

* "James as ΙΥ, IC, ΙΣ" (from Origins of Christianity: Evidence-based history) []
Jesus does not appear in any early sacred text claimed by Christianity - this is an undisputed fact. These texts use abbreviations and they spell IS/JS; no explanation was provided in that period, leaving us to speculate on the name.
When we look at Judea in the first half of the 1st century, we see many people named Jesus, though not a single one fitting anything like the description of the divine man of the textual tradition. Neither Jesus Chrest, nor Jesus Christ exist in the historical record.

The "Heinsohn Horizon" is also noticed in the following, from "First coin in a hoard of 22,000 is one millionth PAS find" (2014-09-27, [] [begin excerpt]:
The Seaton Down Hoard was transferred to the British Museum where the coins were lightly cleaned so they could be valued in compliance with the Treasure Act. The total weight of the coins is 68 kg (150 pounds). They range in date from the 260s A.D. to the 340s with 99% of them struck between 330 and 341 A.D. in the reigns of Constantine and his sons Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans. The most recent coins date to 347-8 A.D. from the joint reign of Constantius II and Constans, the latter of whom was the last legitimate Roman emperor to visit Britain in 343 A.D.
Almost all of the coins are a very common type known as a nummus made of copper-alloy with a small amount of silver. (The handful of 3rd century coins are radiates.) Most of them, more than 11,000, were struck at the mint in Augusta Treverorum (Trier), with 3500 struck in Lugdunum (Lyon) and 2000 at Arelate (Arles). In total an impressive 17 mints are represented in the hoard, and there are some ancient forgeries of indeterminate origin too.
The millionth PAS find, the first coin Egerton unearthed, is a nummus struck in 332 A.D. at the Lyon mint to celebrate Constantine’s founding of the new imperial capital of Constantinople. The obverse of the coin features a personification of Constantinopolis, a laureate and helmeted bust with a scepter over the left shoulder; the reverse depicts winged Victory standing on ship’s prow, holding a scepter of spear in front of her and a shield behind.
Coin hoards from the reigns of Constantine and his sons are among the most commonly found in Britain, but Seaton Down is notable both for its large size (the fifth largest ever found in Britain) and because it was excavated and recorded by archaeologists. All the other big Constantinian hoards, like the one of 22,670 coins unearthed at Nether Compton, Dorset, in 1989, were never recorded, analyzed or studied before being returned to the finder who broke up the collection and sold the coins piecemeal. Copper coins weren’t considered Treasure Trove by the laws at that time, and the local museum that kept the hoard until it was returned to finder just didn’t have the resources to study it properly. [end excerpt]
Photo caption: The millionth object recorded on the PAS database: Copper alloy coin (nummus) struck by Constantine I to celebrate his new city  of Constantinople (Istanbul), struck at Lyon in AD 332, found in the Seaton Hoard (Devon). ©  The Trustees of the British Museum

It is worth referencing the "Heinsohn Horizon" formula, referring to the work of Prof. Gunnar Heinsohn describing three sets of dates (c.325 AD / c.535 AD / c.935 AD) during which the Latin Empire of Roma fell, all with the same technologies evident in the strata across Europe, west to east, with different dates for geographic areas (c.325 AD in Italy / c.535 AD in Germany / c.935 AD in Slavic areas), which, as evident, shows a new perception of the chronological place for the following items of history:

* 313 AD "Constantine the Great and Christianity" (retrieved 2015-10-26, [], who declares himself King of the "Christian people", placing Christians equally with Jews and other nations. After death, he is elevated by edict of the Universal Christian Council. From the article [begin excerpt]: In 313 Constantine and Licinius announced "that it was proper that the Christians and all others should have liberty to follow that mode of religion which to each of them appeared best",[14] thereby granting tolerance to all religions, including Christianity. The Edict of Milan went a step further than the earlier Edict of Toleration by Galerius in 311, returning confiscated Church property. This edict made the empire officially neutral with regard to religious worship; it neither made the traditional religions illegal nor made Christianity the state religion, as occurred later with the Edict of Thessalonica of 380. The Edict of Milan did, however, raise the stock of Christianity within the empire and it reaffirmed the importance of religious worship to the welfare of the state.
The accession of Constantine was a turning point for early Christianity. After his victory, Constantine took over the role of patron of the Christian faith. He supported the Church financially, had an extraordinary number of basilicas built, granted privileges (e.g., exemption from certain taxes) to clergy, promoted Christians to high-ranking offices, returned property confiscated during the Great Persecution of Diocletian, and endowed the church with land and other wealth. Between 324 and 330, Constantine built a new imperial capital at Byzantium on the Bosporos, which would be named Constantinople for him. Unlike "old" Rome, the city began to employ overtly Christian architecture, contained churches within the city walls and had no pre-existing temples from other religions. [...]
Constantine's laws enforced and reflected his Christian reforms. Crucifixion was abolished for reasons of Christian piety, but was replaced with hanging, to demonstrate the preservation of Roman supremacy. On March 7, 321, Sunday, the Day of the Sun, was declared an official day of rest, on which markets were banned and public offices were closed, except for the purpose of freeing slaves. Many Christians had, for over two centuries, been in the practice of worshiping on Sunday, also called "the Eighth Day" in recognition of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ as well as on the traditional Jewish day of worship, the Sabbath. So this act did not change the Christian day of worship so much as it made the day an official Imperial holiday. There were, however, no restrictions on performing farming work, which was the work of the great majority of the population, on Sundays. [...]
In 331, Constantine commissioned Eusebius to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius (Apol. Const. 4) recorded around 340 Alexandrian scribes preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known. It has been speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus are examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta and Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles. [end excerpt]
* 325 AD "First Council of Nicaea" (retrieved 2015-10-26, [] [begin excerpt]: Another result of the council was an agreement on when to celebrate Easter, the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar, decreed in an epistle to the Church of Alexandria in which is simply stated: "We also send you the good news of the settlement concerning the holy pasch, namely that in answer to your prayers this question also has been resolved. All the brethren in the East who have hitherto followed the Jewish practice will henceforth observe the custom of the Romans and of yourselves and of all of us who from ancient times have kept Easter together with you."
* 330 AD "New Rome" (retrieved 2015-10-26, [], at "Byzantium" (retrieved 2015-10-26, [].

* 50 AD "Council of Jerusalem" (retrieved 2015-10-26, [] [begin excerpt]: The council decided that Gentile converts to Christianity were not obligated to keep most of the Law of Moses, including the rules concerning circumcision of males. The Council did, however, retain the prohibitions on eating blood, meat containing blood, and meat of animals not properly slain, and on fornication and idolatry, sometimes referred to as the Apostolic Decree or Jerusalem Quadrilateral. Accounts of the council are found in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15 (in two different forms, the Alexandrian and Western versions) and also possibly in Paul's letter to the Galatians chapter 2. [...]
The purpose of the meeting, according to Acts, was to resolve a disagreement in Antioch, which had wider implications than just circumcision, since circumcision is the "everlasting" sign of the Abrahamic Covenant (Genesis 17:9–14). Some of the Pharisees who had become believers insisted that it was "needful to circumcise them, and to command [them] to keep the law of Moses", according to the popular KJV translation while the Unvarnished New Testament translates: "They have to be circumcised; we have to proclaim and keep the law of Moses".
The primary issue which was addressed related to the requirement of circumcision, as the author of Acts relates, but other important matters arose as well, as the Apostolic Decree indicates. The dispute was between those, such as the followers of the "Pillars of the Church," led by James, who believed, following his interpretation of the Great Commission, that the church must observe the Torah, i.e. the rules of traditional Judaism, and Paul the Apostle, who believed there was no such necessity. [end excerpt]
This is 16 years before the second coming of Jesus, 66 AD.

* "A 5th century BC Celtic princely tomb in Champagne" ( []

* "Ruth Dwyer: the comet of 536 AD and the Ravenna mosaics ;'Something unusual seems to be coming at us from the stars...' (Cassiodorus)" []

* "Cyprus salt lakes exonerate "Peoples of the Sea" from causing the destruction of Bronze Age civilizations" ( []

* "Blood-red flint tools - souvenirs of Doggerland?" ( []

* "Ukraine’s first printed book vanishes along with restoration artist" (2017-10-31, [] [begin excerpt]:
A copy of the Apostolos, the first book printed in modern-day Ukraine by the renowned Russian printer Ivan Fyodorov, has gone missing from a conservation center in Kiev together with the artist who worked on its restoration.
Work on the 1574 book has been underway for the last three years at Ukraine’s National Conservation Center and was to be completed by the end of September. [...]
The Apostolos was first printed in Moscow in 1563-64 by Ivan Fyodorov, who is considered the father of Russian printing.
Fedorov ran another issue of the book in Lvov in 1574, making it also the first printed book on modern Ukrainian territory, then part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Around 90 copies of the Lvov issue remain until this day. [end excerpt]

* "Rewriting history: Biblical eclipse sheds new light on pharaohs" (2017-10-30, [] [begin excerpt]:
The celestial event described in the Old Testament Book of Joshua has been puzzling scholars for centuries. In the King James Bible, after Joshua led the Israelites into Canaan - a land which is now partly in modern Israel and Palestine - he prayed: “Sun, stand still at Gibeon, and Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.”
“And the Sun stood still, and the Moon stopped, until the nation took vengeance on their enemies,” the passage continued. Now, Cambridge researchers say the phrase refers to an ancient solar eclipse that took place on October 30, 1207BC, when Pharaoh Merneptah was waging war against the people of Israel in Canaan.
If the passage was describing a real observation, “then a major astronomical event was taking place,” wrote Professor Sir Colin Humphreys and Graeme Waddington, co-authors of the study published in the ‘Astronomy and Geophysics’ journal [].
“'Modern English translations, which follow the King James translation of 1611, usually interpret this text to mean that the sun and moon stopped moving,” the study said. But analyzing an original Hebrew text provided an alternative interpretation - that the sun and moon “just stopped doing what they normally do: they stopped shining.”
The Hebrew text could be referring to a solar eclipse, “when the moon passes between the earth and the sun, and the sun appears to stop shining,” Humphreys and Waddington explain. To set an exact date of the eclipse, they developed an “eclipse code” which calculated data from Earth’s rotation.
Using the “eclipse code,” the Cambridge researchers found that the only annular eclipse visible from the land of Canaan at that time – between 1500 and 1050BC – was the one on the afternoon of October 30, 1207BC. [end excerpt]


Materials for the Gunnar Heinsohn citation at "Theo. for a NC" page -
From (, to receive it's own citation as time warrants. Author appears to utilize the maps consistent with the era allegedly preceding and post of the "Heinsohn Horizon" to show the catastrophe being accompanied by a general movement of the crustal mounts (sub continents such as Europe's Doggerland, etc.)

* "Chronology: 1 – Ice Cores" (2013-06-18, []
* "Chronology: 2 – Greenland and Oxygen Isotopes" (2013-06-27, []

* "Geology: The Dreadful Science" (2013-07-08, []

* "360 Shades of Albion Whitewash" (2013-07-17, []

* "Liesegang Rings: 5 – Geological Quicksand" (2013-11-04, []
* "Methane Myopia: 4 – Pobiti Kamani" (2013-11-14, []

* "Cosmic Ray Blues – Electromagnetic Shower" (2013-12-01, []
* "Cosmic Ray Blues – Hadronic Shower" (2013-12-02, []
* "Cosmic Ray Blues – Svensmark Sings Synchronicity" (2013-12-03, []
* "Cosmic Ray Blues – Lunar Luminosity" (2013-12-05, []
* "Cosmic Ray Blues – The Bloody Moon" (2013-12-07, []
* "Cosmic Ray Blues – Seeing Scintillating White Dwarfs" (2013-12-11, []
* "Why The Sky Is Blue" (2013-04-15, []

* "The Drake Passage Impact Event" (2013-12-28, []

* "Greenland – Pulp Fiction" (2014-04-04, []
* "Greenland – The First Crossing" (2014-04-06, []
* "Greenland – Raised Beaches – I" (2014-04-10, []
* "Greenland – Raised Beaches – II" (2014-04-20, []
* "Greenland – The Cape York Iron Meteorites" (2014-04-12, []
* "Deprecating the Ovifak Iron Meteorites" (2014-04-15, []
* "Geomorphology: Bending the Truth" (2014-04-28, []

* "Statistically Shaky Sea Shells" (2014-04-22, []

* "Holes in the Ice Age Story" (2014-04-25, []

* "The Ellesmere Embarrassments" (2014-05-07, []
* "Cliff and the Piedmonts" (2014-05-09, []
* "The Axel Heiberg Absurdities" (2014-05-10, []

* "History: Stretching the Truth" (2014-05-01, []

* "Carbon 14 Cultures" (2014-05-12, []
* "Carbon 14 – Libby’s Ring" (2014-05-16, []
* "Carbon 14 – Libby’s Luck" (2014-05-20, []
* "Carbon 14 – Cookbook" (2014-05-21, []
* "Carbon 14 – Willard’s World" (2014-05-22, []
* "Carbon 14 – Lifting the Veil" (2014-05-25, []
* "Carbon 14 – The BIG Fudge" (2014-05-26, []
* "Carbon 14 – Seeing the Light" (2014-05-31, []

* "Living in a Light Bulb" (2014-06-03, []

* "Friends, Romans, Countrymen…" (2014-08-16, []

* "A Not So Funny Thing Happened…" (2014-08-18, []

* "Lacunar Amnesia in Academia" (2014-08-18, []
* "Lacunar Amnesia in Archaeology" (2014-08-19, []
* "Lacunar Amnesia in Dendrochronology" (2017-08-21, []

* "The Mystery of the Missing Oak Trees" (2014-08-22, []
* "Dendrochronology: The Plasticine Effect" (2014-08-23, []
* "Dendrochronology: Death and Double Counting" (2014-08-26, []
* "Dendrochronology – The MAD Carbon-14 Consensus" (2014-08-29, []
* "Dendrochronology: Disastrous Data" (2014-09-06, []

* "Catastrophic Dendrochronology" (2014-09-02, []
* "Catastrophic Chronology" (2014-09-04, []

* " Carbon-14 Chronology" (2014-09-08, []

* "Greenland: Heinsohn’s Phantom Years" (2014-09-13, []

* "de Vries Events" (2014-09-25, []

* "The Great Greenland Snow Job – 01 – Site 2 Strata" (2014-11-22, []
* "The Great Greenland Snow Job – 02 – Camp Century Strata" (2014-11-25, []
* "The Great Greenland Snow Job – 03 – Hewing the Holocene Hockey Stick" (2014-11-27, []
* "The Great Greenland Snow Job – 04 – Gripping the Hockey Stick" (2014-11-30, []
* "The Great Greenland Snow Job – 05 – Hollow Harmonies & Smoking Guns" (2014-12-03, []
* "The Great Greenland Snow Job – 06 – The $64,000 Question" (2014-12-05, []
* "The Great Greenland Snow Job – 07 – Bending Time" (2014-12-09, []
* "The Great Greenland Snow Job – 08 – The Delta 18O Dating Debacle" (2014-12-11, []
* "A Christmas Recipe for Snow" (2014-12-13, []

* "Celestial Crystal Balls and the Temple of Amen-Ra" (2015-04-14, []

* "Rock Around the Clock" (2015-04-29, []

* "Academic Scripts and Academic Actors" (2015-05-26, []

* "Who Was Norman?" (2015-06-25, []

* "The Heinsohn Horizon: The Academic Abyss" (2015-07-01, []
* "So Where Does This Leave Bede?" (2015-07-03, []
* "Latin Line Languages" (2015-07-05, []
* "Birthing Beowulf" (2015-07-07, []
* "Dating Offa’s Dyke" (2015-07-09, []
* "The Heinsohn Horizon and The Migration Period" (2017-09-11, []
* "Heinsohn and The Missing Trees" (2015-11-17, []
* "Isotopic Tree Thermometers and The Heinsohn Horizon" (2015-11-19, []
* "Mike Baillie and The Heinsohn Horizon" (2015-11-20, []
* "Semicircular Europe and The Heinsohn Horizon" (2016-01-24, []
* "The Heinsohn Horizon and The Round Towers" (2016-02-27, []

* "The Roman Warm Period" (2015-11-13, []
* "Heinsohn and The Eclipse Record" (2015-11-14, []
* "The Medieval Warm Period and The Heinsohn Horizon" (2015-11-23, []
* "The Little Ice Age" (2015-11-24, []

* "Fat Finger Forensics – Stretching The Truth" (2015-12-05, []

* "Korea and The Heinsohn Horizon" (2015-12-07, []

* "The ABCD Theory" (2015-12-09, []

* "Rolling Across The Atlantic" (2015-12-11, []

* "Peat Bogs and The Heinsohn Horizon" (2015-12-14, []

* "Planet Amnesia – Toronto Conference 16-19 May 2016" (2015-12-16, []

* "Mankind Without Amnesia" (2015-12-28, []

* "Proglacial Mega-Myths" (2015-12-30, []

* "The Ups and Downs of Sea Level" (2016-01-04, []
* "Noah and The Flood" (2016-01-09, []

* "Stranded Seals" (2016-01-14, []

* "The Deluge" (2016-01-19, []

* "Carbon 14: The Baikal Excursions" (2016-01-21, []

* "Parting Pacific Pottery" (2016-01-22, []

* "A Scandinavian Saga" (2016-01-27, []

* "Lawler Events and The Heinsohn Horizon" (2016-02-09, []
* "Lawler Events and The Last Ming Emperor" (2016-02-11, []

* "Beware Academics Bearing Storms" (2016-02-15, []

* "Déjà Vu Vikings" (2016-02-18, []

* "Henry O’Brien and The Round Tower Competition" (2016-03-03, []
* "Henry O’Brien and The Round Towers" (2016-03-04, []
* "Philip Callahan: Paramagnetism" (2016-03-07, []
* "Philip Callahan and The Round Towers" (2016-03-09, []
* "George Lennox Barrow and The Round Towers" (2016-03-18, []
* "The Round Belfries of Ireland" (2016-03-20, []
* "Michael Tellinger" (2016-03-21, []
* "Theodore Bent and The Round Towers of Zimbabwe" (2016-03-23, []
* "William Betham – Round Towers Resolved: Purpose" (2016-03-28, []
* "William Betham – Round Towers Resolved: Origins" (2016-04-02, []

* "Burned House Syndrome" (2016-04-03, []

* "Ignatius Donnelly: Trans-Atlantic Languages" (2016-02-22, []
* "Ignatius Donnelly: Trans-Atlantic Architecture" (2016-02-25, []

* "Digitised Japanese Isotopic Tree Thermometer" (2016-04-08, []

* "Mesoamerican Guide to the First Millennium" (2016-04-04, []
* "North American Guide to the First Millennium" (2016-04-06, []
* "Irish Guide to the First Millennium" (2016-04-08, []
* "Greenland Guide to the First Millennium" (2016-04-11, []
* "Antarctic Guide to the First Millennium" (2016-04-14, []

* "The Wroxeter Chronicles: The Lost Roman City" (2016-04-19, []
* "The Wroxeter Chronicles: Legions, Lead and Lunacy" (2016-04-21, []
* "The Wroxeter Chronicles: Losing The Legion" (2016-04-23, []
* "The Wroxeter Chronicles: Broken Red Sandstone" (2016-05-13, []
* "The Wroxeter Chronicles: A British Pompeii" (2016-05-20, []

* "Ragnarok: The Age of Fire and Gravel" (2016-04-30, []
* "Justinian’s Raging Bulls" (2016-05-01, []

* "Vitrified Forts – Lunar Society of Birmingham" (2016-05-04, []
* "Vitrified Forts – Surveying The Damage" (2016-05-05, []
* "Vitrified Forts – Up In Smoke" (2016-05-06, []
* "Vitrified Forts – Louis Hissink – Laterite Thinking" (2016-05-09, []
* "Vitrified Forts – Science and Superstition" (2016-05-10, []
* "Vitrified Forts – Dun and Dusted" (2016-05-11, []

* "The Roman Time Line and the Heinsohn Horizon" (2016-05-12, []

* "The Wroxeter Chronicles: Broken Red Sandstone" (2016-05-13, []

* "The Heinsohn Heartbeat and The Gregorian Calendar" (2016-05-18, []
* "The Heinsohn Horizon and The Nice Model" (2016-05-19, []

* "Lawler Alignments – Cosmic Clues" (2016-05-29, []
* "Lawler Alignments – Galactic Interchange Ahead" (2016-05-30, []
* "Lawler Alignments – Galactic Roller Coaster" (2016-06-01, []

* "Another Heinsohn Hoard" (2016-06-17, []

* "Catastrophic English: Sanskrit As She Is Writ" (2016-06-13, []
* "Catastrophic English: Anglo Saxon Architecture" (2016-06-14, []
* "Catastrophic English: English as a Dialect of Sanskrit" (2016-06-15, []
* "Catastrophic English: Saxon Bull" (2016-06-16, []
* "Catastrophic English: R Is For Roma" (2016-07-02, []
* "Catastrophic English: Lithuanian Linguistics" (2016-07-05, []
* "Catastrophic English: India In Greece" (2016-07-07, []
* "Catastrophic English: Monier-Williams Dictionary" (2016-07-08, []
* "Catastrophic English: The Cradle of Indophobia" (2016-07-11, []
* "Catastrophic English: Christianity as a Vedic Cult" (2016-07-17, []
* "Catastrophic English: Out of India" (2016-07-19, []
* "Catastrophic English: India in Britain" (2016-07-21, []
* "Catastrophic English: Mother Tongue and mtDNA" (2016-07-29, []
* "The Institute for Rewriting World History" (2016-07-13, []

* "P.N. Oak: Chips of Vedic Society" (2016-07-24, []

* "Black Earth: Dark Earth" (2016-06-16, [
* "Black Earth: Chernozem" (2016-05-17, []

* "H L Mencken – The Anglo-Saxon" (2016-09-11, []

* "A Canterbury Tale by Saucy Chaucer" (2016-10-06, []

* "The Arabian Horizon: The Year of the Elephant" (2016-10-01, []
* "The Arabian Horizon: The Heinsohn Sandwich" (2016-10-05, []
* "The Arabian Horizon: The Big Chill" (2016-10-08, []
* "The Arabian Horizon: The Wet Deluge" (2016-10-11, []
* "The Arabian Horizon: The Dry Deluge" (2016-10-13, []
* "The Arabian Horizon – The Ptolemy Inheritance" (2016-10-17, []
* "The Arabian Horizon – The Liwa Impact" (2016-10-19, []
* "The Arabian Horizon – The Lost Lands: Punt" (2016-10-21, []
* "Louis Hissink: An Origin for Quartz Sand" (2016-10-23, []
* "The Arabian Horizon – The Lost Lands: Dilmun" (2016-10-26, []
* "The Arabian Horizon – Lost Lands: Havilah" (2017-10-26, []
* "The Arabian Horizon – Lost Lands Travel Guide" (2016-10-31, []
* "The Arabian Horizon – The Blue Sea" (2016-11-02, []
* "The Arabian Horizon – The Cherokee Compass" (2016-11-04, [

* "Russia and the Academic Abyss" (2016-11-08, []

* "Roger Williams: A Key Into the Language of America" (2016-11-10, []
* "The Swimmer Manuscript" (2016-11-18, []
* "Myths of the Cherokee: The Lost Tribes of Israel" (2016-11-28, []
* "Myths of the Cherokee: Sacred Numbers" (2016-12-01, []
* "Myths of the Cherokee: Struck by Lightning" (2016-12-02, []
* "Myths of the Cherokee: The Deluge" (2016-12-05, []

* "The Red Score: Every Picture Tells A Story" (2017-01-02, []
* "The Red Score: Shooting the Messenger" (2017-01-04, []
* "The Red Score: 96 Chieftains" (2017-01-06, []
* "The Red Score: The Deluge" (2017-01-08, []
* "The Red Score: The Migration" (2017-01-11, []
* "The Red Score: Daniel Brinton" (2017-01-13, []
* "The Red Score: The Frozen Trail" (2017-01-17, []
* "The Red Score: Tin Talks" (2017-01-19, []
* "The Red Score: Copper Calls" (2017-01-22, []
* "The Red Score: The Baffin Crucible" (2017-01-25, []
* "The Red Score: Greenland Gold" (2017-01-27, []
* "The Red Score: Otto von Sadovszky" (2017-01-30, []

* "Iceland Goes South" (2017-02-04, []
* "Finding Frisland" (2017-02-06, []
* "The Frisland Finesse: A Tale of Two Islands" (2017-02-08, []

* "Shaping Scotland In Two Shakes" (2017-02-10, []
* "Avalon" (2017-02-13, []
* "Close To The Edge" (2017-02-15, []

* "Dating the Dark Earth: A Tale of Two Techniques" (2017-02-20, []
* "Dating the Dark Earth: The Cheapside Valentinian" (2017-02-22, []
* "Dating the Dark Earth: The Devil’s Kneading Trough" (2017-02-24, []

* "The Parallel Roads of Glen Roy" (2017-02-27, []
* "The Fold Up Beds of Glen Roy" (2017-03-01, []

* "W F Grimes: The Lost Centuries of London" (2017-03-03, []

* "Dark Earth: Billingsgate Bath House" (2017-03-06, []

* "Anglo-Saxon: Unequivocal Evidence" (2017-03-08, []
* "Sutton Courtney and the Saxon Swamp" (2017-03-10, []
* "Saxon Special Deposits" (2017-03-13, []

* "Close Encounters of the Cometary Kind" (2017-03-19, []

* "The London Levels" (2017-03-15, []
* "The Pit Huts of London" (2017-03-17, []

* "Comet Halley and the Roman Time Line" (2017-03-23, []

* "Dallas Abbott: The Burckle Impact" (2017-03-26, [
* "Dallas Abbott: Adventures in Avalon" (2017-03-29, []
* "Dallas Abbott: Cape Verde Coral" (2017-03-31, []

* "Deranged Dating: Cometary Carbon-14" (2017-04-03, []
* "Deranged Dating: The Slanted Science" (2017-04-05, []
* "Deranged Dating: IntCal13 and the Heinsohn Horizon" (2017-04-07, []
* "Deranged Dating: Goal Seeking" (2017-04-09, []
* "Deranged Dating: Double Vision" (2017-04-11, []
* "Deranged Dating: Science To Dye For" (2017-04-13, []
* "Deranged Dating: The Big Picture" (2017-04-17, []
* "Deranged Dating: 536 And All That" (2017-04-19, []
* "Deranged Dating: Tamarack Pond Revisited" (2017-04-21, []
* "Deranged Dating: In a Nutshell" (2017-04-24, []

* "Indian Impacts: Guide to the 1st Millennium" (2017-04-27, []
* "Indian Impacts: The Kannauj Triangle" (2017-04-29, []
* "Indian Impacts: The Hole Story" (2017-05-01, []
* "Indian Impacts: Hammerhead Geology by Louis Hissink" (2017-05-03, []
* "Indian Impacts: Diamonds of the Gods" (2017-05-05, []
* "Indian Impacts: Thunderbolts of the Gods" (2017-05-08, []
* "Indian Impacts: Building Bricks" (2017-05-10, []
* "Indian Impacts: Taprobane" (2017-05-12, []

* "Louis Hissink: Roman Termination Event: A Geological Perspective" (2017-04-15, []
* "Roman Mystery in Elsbach Lignite Pit by Louis Hissink" (2017-05-13, []

* "Ravenna Revisited: Mausoleum of Galla Placidia" (2017-05-15, []

* "Ravenna Revisited: Mausoleum of Theoderic – Farce" (2017-05-17, []
* "Ravenna Revisited: Mausoleum of Theoderic – Tragedy" (2017-05-19, []
* "Ravenna Revisited: Basilica of San Vitale" (2017-05-22, []
* "Ravenna Revisited: Greek Termination Event" (2017-05-24, []
* "Ravenna Revisited: The Heinsohn Horizon" (2017-05-26, []
* "Ravenna Revisited: Triple Point" (2017-05-29, []
* "Ravenna Revisited: A Byzantine Birth" (2017-05-31, []
* "Ravenna Revisited: The Deja Vu Dodo" (2017-06-02, []
* "Ravenna Revisited: The Great Sack Race" (2017-06-05, []

* "Eroding Time" (2017-06-16, []

* "Flipping Geology: Dante’s Inferno" (2017-06-19, []
* "Flipping Geology: Walking on Sunshine" (2017-06-22, []
* "Flipping Geology: Exothermic Processes" (2017-06-26, []
* "Flipping Geology: Forgotten Friction" (2017-06-29, []

* "732 AD and All That – A Belief System Cocktail" (2017-07-27, []

* "Carbon 14: Norwegian Blues" (2017-08-05, []

* "Mosaico de los Amores" (2017-08-09, []

* "Crashing Carthage" (2017-08-10, []

* "Lost in Academia: Periplus of the Erythraean Sea" (2017-08-15, []

* "The Miocene Mysteries" (2017-08-18, []

* "Thorium 230: Chinese Corals" (2017-08-21, []

* "Elk Lake Varves" (2017-08-24, []

* "1472: A Very Particular and Curious Comet" (2017-08-27, []

* "Loch Ness Chronology: Cherry Island" (2017-08-31, []
* "Loch Ness Chronology: Getting to Grips with Gyttja" (2017-09-10, []

* "European Islands of Culture" (2017-09-05, []

* "The Silchester Mystery" (2017-09-07, []

* "The Atomic Comet: The Thorium Connection" (2017-09-15, []
* "The Atomic Comet: A Velikovsky Vindication" (2017-09-22, []
* "The Atomic Comet: Death In The Clouds" (2017-09-26, []
* "The Atomic Comet: The Feathered Serpent" (2017-09-29, []
* "The Atomic Comet: The Ionization Enigma" (2017-10-02, []
* "The Atomic Comet: Carbon Cousins" (2017-10-05, []
* "The Atomic Comet: Neutron Bombs" (2017-10-09, []
* "The Atomic Comet: The Carolina Bays" (2017-10-13, []
* "The Atomic Comet: Sea of Showers" (2017-10-19, []
* "The Atomic Comet: On The Far Side" (2017-10-23, []
* "The Atomic Comet: Electric Epilogue" (2017-10-26, []
* "The Atomic Comet: Self-Propelled Footnote" (2017-10-30, []

* "The Great Cnuts of Climate" (2017-10-27, []

[more articles are posted through today, keep archiving more]

* "Roman Chronology: Credibility Gap" (2018-04-26, []

* "Enigmatic Egypt: Roman Ruination – Red Sea Hills" (2018-05-28, []
Documents that were found on site referred to 12-wheeled and 4-wheeled carts, and include a request for delivery of new axles.
At the Quarries, several columns, some basins and a bath can still be found lying broken; the largest column is 60 ft high and weighs some 200 tonnes.
How do you transport a 60 foot column [weighing 200 tonnes] across 120 kilometres of the Eastern Desert when there are no paved roads and no pneumatic tyres?


Many "Hellenistic" archaeological sites, no record of any depictions of the Giza pyramids, or pyramids generally.
* "Archaeologists discover ancient gym in Cairo" (2017-11-07, []
* "Archaeologists Discover 2,300-Year-Old Gymnasium in Egypt; A joint team of German and Egyptian archaeologists working at the Watfa site in Egypt's Fayoum province discovered an ancient gym that dates back to the Hellenistic period" (2017-11-08, []

* "12 Photographs Mainstream Archaeology Does Not Want You to See" (2017-07-12, []


* "Archaeologists discover royal baths, shedding light on Qin rulers" (2017-11-10, []

The controversy over who authored works attributed to Michealangelo, and when...
The Master artists never used a canvas... [], and sketches found in a cellar are mixed with those of "students" []; a potential fake, but passed as real for the sake of financial investment]

The pattern for the "Heinsohn Horizon" is found in the following...
* "New discovery dates London's status as financial center back to early Roman times" (2017-11-25, [] [begin excerpt]:
Archaeologists working on the site of a temple in what was the Roman city of London close to the banks of the river Thames have come across an exceedingly rare hoard of wax tablet documents. One of these is the oldest financial document the City ever produced that has so far been found.
"This is an IOU (I owe you) between two ex-slaves, and it is the first financial document for the City of London," archaeologist Louise Fowler told Xinhua on Friday.
"And we can date this back precisely to January 8, AD 57. It is the first hand-written document from Britain," said Fowler, a project manager with Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA).
The temple, dedicated to the mysterious Roman god Mithras, stood on the banks of the Walbrook, one of the now lost streams that once crossed the city of London site.
The archaeology dig which uncovered the remains of the temple is over, and the excavation is now on show to the public.
The Romans invaded Britain in AD 43, and by AD 50 they had acquired a firm grip on the south of the island of Britain.
It was at this time that they founded London, at the point where the Thames estuary narrowed enough to allow it to be bridged.
The city was from the start a port and a trading hub, which grew rapidly in stature as the Romans developed the parts of the British isles they had conquered and as trade flourished with continental Europe and the Mediterranean, which was why the two ex-slaves were in London and why they were doing business together.
The IOU had been written into a flat cake of wax contained inside a wooden frame, called a tablet, by one of the ex-slaves involved in the transaction using a metal pen, known as a stylus.
The wax had dissolved away in London's soil many hundreds of years ago, but the friction of the stylus in the wax surface had grazed the wooden backing of the tablet, meaning that the Latin words can now be read.
"We had a collection of over 405 wax writing tablets dating from the first years of the city. They contain names, they contain addresses and the very first written references to London," said Fowler.
Such a find is highly unusual, not just for its size but because hardly any wooden tablets ever survive.
"A stream (the Walbrook) occupied the site and led to a build-up of deposits in the valley," Fowler said.
"There are several meters of archaeology in the area and conditions from the stream have preserved the remains really well. So we have lots of stuff we would not normally have on an excavation in Britain, things like leather and wood have survived really well in those conditions," she explained.
So the tablet takes back the history of trade and financing in what is known as the City of London, the historic core of the metropolis and the heart of the financial sector, to the very early days of the Roman occupation of Britain.
And one of the imports that the Romans brought to Britain was their variety of gods and religions, including the god Mithras. [...]
The MOLA excavation was "one of the largest excavations we have had in the City", said Fowler, and it produced a "huge assemblage of finds, 14,000 artifacts, 65,000 shards of pottery."
Mithras was a Roman god with links to Persia and his followers would have met at temples. There were thousands scattered across the Roman Empire, with Rome alone having several hundred temples dedicated to the god.
"We don't know much of what the Mithras followers did or what they believed because it was a mystery cult," said Fowler.
"It was for men only and there were seven grades of initiation into the cult, and it was mainly made up of soldiers and traders -- people who would have moved around."
Not only was the cult a shared belief, it was also a good way for businessmen to carry out what is now known as "networking". [...]
The temple thrived in London from 240 AD for about 100 years, but interest in the god Mithras waned, and the temple was rededicated to the god Bacchus, and the Mithras statues were buried under the floor to be forgotten for centuries. [end excerpt]
* "Roman cult of Mithras reborn in London Original all-male ceremonies were ‘quite pungent’" (2017-11-23, []
- Photo caption: The third-century Temple of Mithras was discovered in 1954, then rebuilt 100m away in the 1960s. When reconstructing the temple in its new home, the team examined original newsreel footage of the 1954 site to stay true to the original design 


A medieval town in Bavaria,  Nördlingen, is built within the Ries crater, a crater mucked with microscopic diamonds, a phenomena which is found to facilitate a review of scientific theories describing the processes by which diamonds are created, and may lend towards a review of such similar geological topographical features found elsewhere...
[] [] [] [] []

* "2,000-year-old Protectorate of the Western Regions confirmed in Xinjiang" (2017-12-14, []:
After four years of archaeological study, an ancient city in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has been basically confirmed as the former seat of the Protectorate of the Western Regions about 2,000 years ago.
"The city, largest among the 370 ancient cities unearthed in Xinjiang, was most likely the Protectorate of the Western Regions, the highest military and political authority set up in the region during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25 A.D. - 220 A.D.)," said Chen Ling from Peking University.
Located 22 km southwest of Xinhe County, Taqian, the so-called "Yuqikate" ancient city is mostly buried underground, except some sections of rammed earth walls.
Using multiple means of detection including remote sensing and exploratory drilling, archaeologists found that the city consisted of outer, middle and inner walls, with the outer rectangular wall measuring 1,471 by 800 meters.
Chen said such a large size was very rare for a city in the region, which demonstrated that the city was a significant center at the time.
Colored Han potteries were also unearthed. In 1928, well-known archaeologist Huang Wenbi discovered two seals issued by the Han dynasty.
Based on the city size, unearthed relics and literature, archaeologists from institutions in Xinjiang and Beijing have confirmed that the city was the Protectorate of the Western Regions during the Eastern Han Dynasty.
According to ancient literature, the Western Han Dynasty (202 B.C.- 8 A.D.) in 60 B.C. exercised military and administrative jurisdiction over the western regions by establishing the protectorate in Wulei.
Chen said the protectorate was later moved westward to Taqian some 200 km away, demonstrating enhanced control of the central government over the region.

* "46 Prehistoric Sites with Paleolakes Discovered in 'Green Arabia' " (2017-08-01, []

This Day ... In Jewish History []

Medieval Seal representing Abraxas []

* "Theatre of Treasure: Roman Gold Coins Found in Northern Italy ‘Could Be Worth Millions’ " (2018-09-11, [] [begin excerpt]: The coins were unearthed in Como which was the site of an important Roman town called Novum Comum. The town was originally a Roman colony and was greatly expanded by Julius Caesar who visited it after the Gallic Wars during his march on Rome.  He drained a nearby swamp and later bestowed Roman citizenship on the inhabitants. Soon the town began to flourish, and it was at the center of some important trade routes. Como later became an important medieval city.
The find was made by workers in the basement of the old Cressoni theatre in Como which was being renovated. They came across what looked like a container in the foundation of the theatre and they decided to alert the relevant authorities, which is required by Italian law. The theatre was built in 1870 and had in turn been converted into a luxury home and a cinema, but it had been empty since 1997.  The Archaeology News Network has reported that the ‘authorities now plan to suspend work at the site to allow further excavations.’ [end excerpt]
- image caption: The discovery was made in the basement floor of a private house.


Tartary - an Empire hidden in history. It was bigger than Russia once...
[] [] [] [] [] [] [] []


Ruth Dwyer: the comet of 536 AD and the Ravenna mosaics (

* "Mithras, Jesus and Josephus Flavius" ( [] [begin excerpt]: On 384 AD Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, the last “papa” (acronym of the words Pater Patrum = Fathers’ Father) of the so called Cult of Mithras, died in Rome. His name, and his religious and political appointments, are written on the basement of St Peters’ Basilica, together with the names of a long list of other Roman senators, spanning a period from 305 to 390. The one thing that they have in common is that they all are “patres” of  Mithras. As many as nine among them have the supreme title of Pater Patrum, clear evidence that it was here, inside the Vatican, that the supreme leader of the mithraic organization resided, on the site of the most sacred Basilica of Christianity, erected by Constantine the Great in 320 a.D. For at least 70 years the supreme leaders of two “religions” that were always supposed to be competitors, if not sworn enemies, lived peacefully and in perfect harmony side by side. It was the same Praetextatus, as prefect of the city, who defended Damasus against his opponents, on 367, and confirmed him as bishop of Rome.
Praetextatus often declared that he willingly had accepted to be baptized, if  the see of St. Peter was offered to him. Following his death, however, the opposite happened. The title of Pater Patrum fell (today we would say by default) upon Damasus’ successor, the bishop Siricius, who was the first, in the Church’s history, to assume the title of “papa” (pope). Together with it he took also upon himself a long series of other prerogatives, titles, symbols, objects and possessions, which passed en masse from Mithraism to Christianity. [end excerpt]
- image caption: Coin showing Emperor Constantine and the God Mithras on the opposite side


* "Termagant" (retrieved 2020-09-08, [] [begin excerpt]:
Origin of the concept -
European literature from the Middle Ages often referred to Muslims as pagans, with sobriquets such as "the paynim foe". These depictions represent Muslims worshipping Muhammad as a god along with various deities in the form of idols (cult images), ranging from Apollyon to Lucifer, but their chief deity was typically named Termagant. In some writings, such as the eleventh-century Song of Roland, this was combined to create an "unholy Trinity" of sorts composed of Muhammad, Apollyon, and Termagant.
The origin of the name Termagant is unknown, and does not seem to derive from any actual aspect of Muslim belief or practice, however wildly distorted. In the 19th century, W. W. Skeat speculated that the name was originally "Trivagante", meaning "thrice wandering", a reference to the moon, because of the Islamic use of crescent moon imagery. An Old English origin has also been suggested, from tiw mihtig r ("very mighty"), referring to the Germanic god Tiw. Another possibility is that it derives from a confusion between Muslims and the Zoroastrian Magi of ancient Iran: thus tyr-magian, or "Magian god". Joseph T. Shipley argues that it evolved from the Italian "Trivigante" and became confused with "termigisto", meaning boaster, derived from Hermes Trismegistus. Leo Spitzer argues that Tervagant, like several other names ending in -ant from the Matter of France (e.g. Baligant and Morgant), is an "occitanization" of a vulgar Latin gerund created by Old French poets for exotic effect. He proposes as its etymon terrificans (terrifying), appropriate for a god.
Termagant in literature
Whatever its origins, "Termagant" became established in the West as the name of the principal Muslim god, being regularly mentioned in metrical romances and chansons de geste. The spelling of the name varies considerably (Tervigant, Tervagant, Tarvigant, etc.).
In Occitan literature, the name Muhammed was corrupted as "Bafomet", forming the basis for the legendary Baphomet, at different times an idol, a "sabbatic goat", and key link in conspiracy theories. The troubadour Austorc d'Aorlhac refers to Bafomet and Termagant (Tervagan) side-by-side in one sirventes, referring also to the latter's "companions".
In the 15th-century Middle English romance Syr Guy of Warwick, a Sultan swears an oath:
So help me, Mahoune, of might,
And Termagant, my god so bright.
In the Chanson de Roland, the Muslims, having lost the battle of Roncesvalles, desecrate their "pagan idols" (lines 2589–90):
E Tervagan tolent sun escarbuncle, / E Mahumet enz en un fosset butent,
(They strip the fire-red gem off Tervagant / And throw Mohammed down into a ditch...)
Tervagant is also a god/statue of the "king of Africa" in the Jean Bodel play in Old French (c.1200) Le jeu de saint Nicolas.
In the Sowdone of Babylone, the sultan makes a vow to Termagaunte rather than Mahound (Muhammad)[5] (lines 135–40):
"Of Babiloyne the riche Sowdon,
Moost myghty man he was of moolde;
He made a vowe to Termagaunte:
Whan Rome were distroied and hade myschaunce,
He woolde turne ayen erraunte
And distroye Charles, the Kinge of Fraunce."
In Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the "Tale of Sir Thopas" (supposed to be told by Chaucer himself on the pilgrimage) is a parody of these chivalric romances. In the tale, a giant knight named "Sir Oliphaunt" is made to swear an oath by Termagant.
Ludovico Ariosto used the form Trivigante.
It has been claimed that Termagant became a stock character in medieval mystery plays[6][7] but another source denies this completely. On the stage, Termagant was usually depicted as a turbanned creature who wore a long, Eastern style gown. As a stage-villain, he would rant at and threaten the lesser villains who were his servants and worshippers.


* "Why Halley's Comet May Be Linked to Famine 1,500 Years Ago" (2013-12-18, [] [begin excerpt]: A piece of the famous Halley's comet likely slammed into Earth in A.D. 536, blasting so much dust into the atmosphere that the planet cooled considerably, a new study suggests. This dramatic climate shift is linked to drought and famine around the world, which may have made humanity more susceptible to "Justinian's plague" in A.D. 541-542 — the first recorded emergence of the Black Death in Europe.
The new results come from an analysis of Greenland ice that was laid down between A.D. 533 and 540. The ice cores record large amounts of atmospheric dust during this seven-year period, not all of it originating on Earth. [‪Photos of Halley's Comet Through History]
"I have all this extraterrestrial stuff in my ice core," study leader Dallas Abbott, of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, told LiveScience here last week at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union.
Certain characteristics, such as high levels of tin, identify a comet as the origin of the alien dust, Abbott said. And the stuff was deposited during the Northern Hemisphere spring, suggesting that it came from the Eta Aquarid meteor shower — material shed by Halley's comet that Earth plows through every April-May.
The Eta Aquarid dust may be responsible for a period of mild cooling in 533, Abbott said, but it alone cannot explain the global dimming event of 536-537, during which the planet may have cooled by as much as 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit (3 degrees Celsius). For that, something more dramatic is required.
Ice core data record evidence of a volcanic eruption in 536, but it almost certainly wasn't big enough to change the climate so dramatically, Abbott said.
"There was, I think, a small volcanic effect," she said. "But I think the major thing is that something hit the ocean."
She and her colleagues have found circumstantial evidence of such an impact. The Greenland ice cores contain fossils of tiny tropical marine organisms — specifically, certain species of diatoms and silicoflagellates.
An extraterrestrial impact in the tropical ocean likely blasted these little low-latitude organisms all the way to chilly Greenland, researchers said. And Abbott believes the object responsible was once a piece of Halley's comet. [end excerpt]
* "Ruth Dwyer: the comet of 536 AD and the Ravenna mosaics; 'Something unusual seems to be coming at us from the stars...' (Cassiodorus)" ( []: Prof. Ruth Dwyer, professor of Art History and Film at McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada (emerita) discovered in the famous mosaics of Ravenna a depiction of contemporanous phenomena attending the comet of 536 AD and the ensuing catastrophes of the reign of Justinian. She shows her findings in this video, drawing additonally on the sacred Hymns of the kontakion  of Romanos Melodos (Romanus the Melodist), Earthquakes and Fires. 
* "The Comet of 536 and the Ravenna Mosaics" (2013-01-27, []: The second video by Ruth Dwyer in the Ancient Symmetria series.  She discusses how the Ravenna Mosaics depict life in Justinian's Empire before, during and after the Comet of 536.
This paper was presented at the 20th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, 10-14 Sept. 2014, Istanbul Technical University.
To see all of her videos, go to
- [comment]: The comet that destroyed Britain came from north to south and split into three pieces around north central England near Hadrian's wall. A smaller piece destroyed Britain, Ireland was also affected. The main impacts were actually in Brazil and another hit Bolivia and Mexico was also affected.
Rome heavily and actively edited out this history from written record. Justinian declared it heresy to suggest that heavenly bodies fell from the sky and refused to send aid, which in turn caused mass starvation and a mad max type dystonia in the British Islands. The Dark Ages followed.
Nevertheless some written accounts did survive, French and Norwegian in particular...The Norwegian accounts being beyond papal reach. It is estimated that over 2 million died in the British isles alone, and countless millions died indirectly across the globe. The accounts say that it was like daylight in the dead of night as Britain burned, and that was from accounts  across the channel and Norway. A true apocalypse.
- [comment]: A comet was said to have virtually wiped out the thriving society in post Roman Britain. That was in 562 AD and taking into account the timescale it’s plausible that further debris was still hitting earth. Now dismissed as just legendary, the comet/asteroid passed over the British isles and most likely made landfall in Bolivia. It left the “badlands “ which were uninhabitable for over a decade and is clearly referred to in contemporary writings in France.
If so the Saxons merely walked into land in recovery and uninhabited. Any survivors would have been in no position to repeal such an influx of Saxon settlers. 
More importantly it rewrites “dark age” history of Britain and should be investigated properly, not merely dismissed by archaeologists who seem to just want to ignore it.

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