- How could Scandinavian and Baltic peoples of Antiquity and Late Antiquity fail to adopt sails, ports and breakwaters when there were countless experts from Europe who could teach them, and even low-value Roman coins spread throughout their territories?
- How could these peoples, after 700 CE, become the world‘s uncontested master seafarers when – after the lethal and irreversible fall of Roman civilization – there was nobody left to teach them?
- How could they understand classical Latin and create items of Antiquity and Late Antiquity – which they imitated perfectly, right down to the chemical fingerprints of Roman paints and glass pastes – when they did not even have ancient strata beneath their habitats from which they could dig up and copy the material culture of Rome?
- How could Arabs of Antiquity and Late Antiquity, the Vikings‘ trading partners, fail, for some 700 years, to write texts or issue coins when there were countless experts all over the Mediterranean who could teach them such basics?
- How, after 700 CE, could the Arabs become uncontested masters of these cultural techniques when Roman civilization had been crushed, and there were no specialists left to teach them these skills?
- How is it possible that sites devastated in the 3rd c. exhibit the same architecture and crafts as early medieval sites devastated in the 10th c. CE?
- How can one explain that sites dated to Antiquity (1st-3rd c.) are as stratigraphically close to the High Middle Ages (10th/11th c.) as Early Medieval sites if they are not contemporary?
[Full conference presentation]:
Pierwsza Miedzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa o Truso
The First International Conference on Truso
Elblag, 18th - 19th May 2015:
Viking Globolization - Truso from the perspective of Baltic Commercial Centres.
19th May: The Second Session. The Old Town Hall.
- Where are complete stratigraphies for all 1st Millennium periods?
- Where is evolution in architecture, technology, language etc. between Antiquity and the Early Medieval Viking period?
- Why does material evolution jum from Late Latène right into the 700 year later early Medieval period?
- 10/11th c. CE: High Middle Ages
- 10th C. Crisis: Destruction, depopulation, dark or grey earth etc.
- 8th-10th c. CE: New architecture, early Middle Ages / Preslav (Viking Age)
- 6th C. Crisis: Destruction, depopulation, dark or grey earth etc.
- 4th-6th c. CE: New architecture of Late Antiquity, Romuliana
- 3rd. C. Crisis: Destruction, depopulation, dark or grey earth etc.
- 1st-3rd C. CE: Architecture of Antiquity, Londinium
- 1st C. BCE: Late Latene / Late Hellenism
Translation of my general questions for Poland‘s first millennium CE:
- Where are slavic sites with super-imposed strata of their three main
periods: Venedi (Antiquity), Venethi (Late Antiquity), Weonod (Early Middle Ages)?
- Where are 1st-6th c. Poles after Latène and before the 6th/7th c. earliest Slavs from Bachórz?
- 10/11th c.: Piasts / Strata
- 10th C. Crisis: Destruction, depopulation, dark or grey earth etc.
- 8th-10th c.: Weonod (Wulfstan) / Strata of Slavic tribes
- 7th c.: Earliest Slavs (Parczewski) / Strata at Bachórz (Still Latène material?)
- 4th-6th c.: Venethis (Jordanes) / No strata
- 3rd. C. Crisis: Destruction, depopulation, dark or grey earth etc.
- 1st-3rd C. CE: Venedi (Pliny the Elder) / No strata
- 1st C. BCE: Latène / Already Bachórz-Slavs?
What do we know about Winchester where Alfred the Great (871-899) has recorded Wulftan's Voyage to Truso?
Alfred the Great`s Winchester (Venta Belgarum) in the 2nd c. CE [archive.is/4AS5]
- Alfred‘s 2nd c. Venta Belgarum had many Roman town houses, and a forum with public buildings for which nobody claims ownership?
- The forum-basilica of Venta Belgarum included a temple to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.
- Why are there 1000s of tesserae from 2nd c. mosaics in 9th c. Viking Age sites whilst Alfred (with his 2nd c. Latin and Roman coin images) cannot have walked on the 2nd c. mosaics of Venta Belgarum but had to live (together with his “travelling court“) like a tramp always on the move?
Viking age Franks: Where are Charlemagne's order to build Ingelheim in a 700 year older style? How do his architects obtain 700 year old Roman expertise?
- Cologne’s 2nd c. CE excedra forum, from "What did Cologne look like 2000 years ago?" (colonia3d.de) [archive.is/nFKfh], articles [archive.is/ZnNUY] [archive.is/a9N6X])
- Ingelheims‘s 9th c. CE exedra palace (89 m),(archimedix.com) [archive.is/e25wY], [more info about the artist] [archive.is/2Mz7n] [archive.is/l9Wsz].
Excavators wonder why no orders by Charlemagne are known that forced his architects to imitate 700- year-older designs, forms and materials. Yet, they are thrilled that down to the hydraulic cement, as well as the chemical fingerprint of the wall colors, the Frankish builders were able to retrieve all the secrets of Roman craftsmen that had been lost for so many centuries.
- Interior of the Ingelheim’s aula regia in Roman paint chemistry [archive.is/1Nr2S]:
Excavators‘ comments (kaiserpfalz-ingelheim.de) -
- [archive.is/rgxbv]: "The semicircular building clearly shows the significance of antique models, the only one of its kind in medieval architecture."
- [archive.is/YcuFI]: Ingelheim’s throne hall "is in the tradition of the antique and late antique palatial aula."
- [archive.is/ygrb0]: Ingelheim’s water tunnel with "hydraulic mortar (Opus signinum)" impressively confirms "the traditional engineering feats from the days of ancient Romans."
- The aula roof was covered with “tiles formed in the ancient Roman way” (Geißler 2014).
VIKING AGE GOTHIC SPAIN: RAMIRO‘S 9th C. AULA REGIA* IN OVIEDO.
WHY DOES THE HALL RESEMBLE 700 YEAR OLDER ROMAN BUILDINGS?
*Oldest intact secular building of the Early Middle Ages. Ramiro’s 9th c. Aula regia in 2nd c. design (Santa Maria del Narancoy San Miguel de Lillo) [archive.is/pI8mD]
Ground plan of Ramiro’s 9th c. Aula regia (Oviedo) in 2nd c. design with a porticus on either side (amphiprostyle [portico both at front and rear]) [archive.is/rvJjF].
AN HISTORIAN‘S SHARP OBSERVATIONS ON OVIEDO‘S 9th C. MONUMENTS
The Amphi-Prostyle Aula is a “seamless continuation of Antiquity“ (Trinks 2014, 305/307; 306 [photo]).
On “S. Julián de los Prados” (Santullana): “The surprising ornamental painting in a Roman-Pompeian style / gives the impression of an antique basilica through and through“
(Trinks 2014, 292) photo (jdiezarnal.com) [archive.is/MgnT7].
More photos from (jdiezarnal.com): [archive.is/lhFpI] [archive.is/1Ui4w] [archive.is/VlBV0] [archive.is/yQgyJ] [archive.is/dnAb9] [archive.is/gvzee] [archive.is/JgSFF] [archive.is/W8cS2] [archive.is/c4Q7N] [archive.is/5tuYA] [archive.is/8Bt0F] [archive.is/aGN13] [archive.is/vnMZc] [archive.is/h7UUx] [archive.is/INUkA] [archive.is/bzdL1] [archive.is/2VcB7] [archive.is/Tewrw] [archive.is/wJa4f] [archive.is/adPGY] [archive.is/rc8Wq] [archive.is/4HNy9] [archive.is/X7kXx] [archive.is/d3Zci] [archive.is/u3irK] [archive.is/zdWuw], frescoes [archive.is/7twAG] [archive.is/KYbdp] [archive.is/O8Pgb] [archive.is/sDtSU] [archive.is/578vD] [archive.is/Wrsk2] [archive.is/Zzrm7] [archive.is/QVqdd]
Latène-style in Ireland's (700 year later) Viking age -
- "The 5th to 7th centuries [CE] were a continuation of late Iron Age La Tène art" [of the 1st c. BCE]
- "The [8th/9th c.] Book of Kells‘ / four initial pages are superb. The calligraphy becomes a pretext for a dazzling display of spiral and interlace patterns from La Tene Celtic art designs" (visual-arts-cork.com) [archive.is/ovj8L].
- "Examples from Iron Age Ireland of La Tène style [1st c. BCE/CE] / are very few, to a ‘puzzling‘ [Ó Cróinín 2008, lx] extent. / Despite this it was in Ireland that the style seemed to revive in the [8th/9th c.] Early Christian period, to form the Insular art of the Book of Kells",
(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Ireland; visited 05-05-2015) [archive.is/0H3ko].
Celtic triskele enamel pattern on 2nd C. CE Staffordshire Moorlands Pan, (en.wikipedia.org) [archive.is/pTaMC], photo [archive.is/xC0Js].
Celtic triskele patterns from Book of Kells (8th/9th c. CE) (willow.creative-interweb.com) [archive.is/W0NsN] [archive.is/RNupk]
HOW CAN ONE JUMP FROM LATÈNE-STYLE IMMEDIATELY TO IRELAND‘S 700
YEAR YOUNGER VIKING AGE IF BOTH PERIODS ARE NOT CONTINUOUS ?
- Thomas CHARLES-EDWARDS (in Ó Cróinín 2008, lx), "The last downturn within the period of this volume [on Irish history] coincided approximately with the apogee of Roman power in the Mediterranean world, ca. 200 B.C. –A.D. 300. / The two periods whose art dominate any record of Irish art before the twelfth century, bronze age and early Christian Ireland, thus sit either side of the more enigmatic iron age."
- EARLY MIDDLE AGES Settlements/Celtic style continued
- 200 BC-300 AD without buildings
- LA TÈNE Settlements/Celtic style
Silver Triskele in Latene style from 8th c. Moylough Belt Shrine with enamel and millefiori glass in bronze border (irisharchaeology.ie) [archive.is/ggKnK]
LATE ANTIQUITY REPEATED IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES!
- “Viking-Age ornament / had its roots in Roman Art“ (Wilson 2012, 323).
- 4th c. belt buckle decor of GERMANIC ROMAN OFFICERS (Böhme 2008)
- 8th/9th c. Book of Kells animal decor (willow.creative-interweb.com) [archive.is/ySY9N].
WHAT HUNS AND GOTHS ARE FOR THE 5th CENTURY...
MAGYARS AND VIKINGS ARE FOR THE 9th CENTURY.
VIKING AGE HUNGARY: Mosaburg (Moosburg) I
- 2nd c. CE painted glass (gaming counters from Lullingstone/England) (dailymail.co.uk) [archive.is/f0Q9S]
- 9th c. CE painted glass from Mosaburg (Budapest National Museum)
VIKING AGE HUNGARY: Mosaburg (Moosburg) II
- Roman 1st c. CE millefiori beads (bonhams.com) [archive.is/fv7lH]
- 9th c. CE millefiori beads from Mosaburg (Budapest National Museum)
VIKING AGE HUNGARY: Mosaburg (Moosburg) III
- Roman 1st – 3rd c. versions of the iron stylus for writing on a wax tablet
(timelineauctions.com) [archive.is/q56NR]; (binghamheritage.org.uk) [archive.is/zroTp]
- 9th c. CE Mosaburg versions of the the iron stylus for writing on a wax tablet (Budapest National Museum)
VIKING AGE HUNGARY: Mosaburg (Moosburg) IV
- 2nd c. governor palace in Aquincum (Budapest; lugio.hu) [archive.is/o9gz6]
- 9th c. Basilica of Zalavár-Récéskút (limestone and marble) at Mosaburg (Model in National Museum; Budapest)
VIKING AGE LEVANT I: Ummayad Damascus (Syria)
- Mosaic of the Umayyad mosque (Damascus; early 8th c. CE) [archive.is/KaowQ]
- 1st c. CE fresco from Villa Arianna in Boscoreale (thecultureconcept.com) [archive.is/fCt8n]
- “The famous [8th c.] frescoes resort to antique motifs, / show parallels with the motifs on the [1st c.] frescoes in Pompei and Boscoreale“ (Trinks 2014, 264 f.)
- “Depicting vine tendrils, Corinthian acanthus rolls, gemmed vases and even fantastic Pompeian- like Roman palaces ensured the survival of such [700 year older] motifs in Islam’s nascent art“ (Michaud et al. 1996, 255 f.).
VIKING AGE LEVANT II: Ummayad Quseir Amra (Jordan)
- Early 8th c. CE ”desert castle” Quseir Amra with vaulted baths in Roman 1st c. style (apodyterium, caldarium, tepidarium) and Hellenistic frescoes. 8th c. CE Quseir frescoes are made in 1st c. BCE/CE Hellenistic style and technique. LATE LATÈNE to EARLY MIDDLE AGES.
Article [archive.is/5z4rs], photos of one of the frescos [archive.is/IkgDC] [archive.is/Kg6Rn].
"A unique painting embellishing the hot room of the bath complex represents the constellation of the Northern Hemisphere. / Ancient Greek influence in many of these paintings can be recognized in their subject matter and in the fact that some even bear Greek inscriptions. / What we see is an ’indigenous Hellenism that is local, not alien" (Wiener 2012; bold GH).
VIKING AGE LEVANT III: Stepped Merlons
- Stepped Merlons on 1st c. BCE/CE rock tombs at Mada’in Salih (Al Hijr/Hegra), photo from (amusingplanet.com) [archive.is/zv0cZ]
- 8th c. CE stepped merlons at Umayyad-Palace (Qasr al-Hair al-Garbi: 727 CE ff.), photo from (pbase.com) [archive.is/UcY98]
VIKING AGE LEVANT IV: Umayyad Anjar (Lebanon)
- Early 8th c. CE Umayyad ANJAR (AIN GERRHA) founded in 714 (Lebanon; 370 x 310 m) in a plan “re-calling earlier /Roman cities” of the 1st/2nd c. with decumanus and cardo (Peterson 1996, 20). Image from (almashriq.hiof.no) [archive.is/0KQsT].
- 8th c. CE Umayyad city ANJAR with arched Hellenistic-style arcades and Ziegeldurchschusswalls
(re-erected by excavators) in 1st c. BCE/CE style.
VIKING AGE ABBASIDS I:
700 year STAGNATION, PERFECT IMITATION after 700 years, or CONTEMPORANEITY?
- Roman millefiori glass bowl of the 1st c. CE. (e-tiquities.com) [archive.is/1Z0vj]
- Abbasid millefiori glass bowl of the 8th/9th c. CE. (christies.com) [is.gd/rYEemK]
“Roman glassmaking traditions / in the Islamic period include the application of glass trails. / Mold-blowing, based on Roman traditions from the 1st century CE, is another specialized technique that spread widely throughout the Islamic Mediterranean world during this [8-10th c.] period” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_glass).
- Late 1st c. CE Roman glass vase of from Cologne. (Harden 1988, 191).
- Fragment of 9th c. Abbasid glass plate: “A ninth-10th-century is certainly possible. […] Similar motifs […] are found on a Roman relief-cut vessel from Cologne” (Whitehouse 2010, 269).
VIKING AGE ABBASIDS II: Ukhaidir and Jawsaq al-Khaqani (Iraq)
- Abbasid 8th c. fortress, Ukhaidir, with a 1st c. “Roman military“ layout (almendron.com) [archive.is/qZ7iR]
- Abbasid 9th c. fortress, Jawsaq al-Khaqani, with arena in 1st/2nd c. Roman design + sub-structure (cemml.colostate.edu) [archive.is/g0H3U].
VIKING AGE BULGARIA I: Pliska
- 2nd c. CE Ulpia Serdica (SOFIA; walls 10-12 m, gates 13-15 m high), image from video at [youtube.com/watch?v=f5B-Qu9PqL]
- 9th c. CE Pliska in 2nd c. castrum layout (walls 10 m, gates 14-15 m high), image from article at (pmgsh.bg) [archive.is/uHM0y].
VIKING AGE BULGARIA II: Pliska
- 2nd c. bricks in 9th c. construction: “Besides the already mentioned antique columns and capitals, Pliska contains other, more ancient materials. Most common amongst them are the bricks. A small part of them are Roman, from the II-III c., sealed by the seals of the state or private persons“ (Rashev/Dimitrov 1999, ch. 15; bold GH).
- Typical 9th c. CE Pliska buildings in 2nd c. outline from article at (pmgsh.bg) [archive.is/uHM0y].
VIKING AGE BULGARIA III: Preslav.
- Another 9th/10th c. site in 2nd/3rd c. style (commons.wikimedia.org) [archive.is/f4LnK]
VIKING AGE BULGARIA IV: PERPLEXED ARCHAEOLOGISTS.
- "Free-flowing water was brought by the way of an water-conduit from 7 km away. / The watercatching there was pronounced to date to antique times [1st-3rd. c. CE; GH] on the basis of
the antique building materials used in its construction" (Rashev/Dimitrov 1999, ch. 4).
- "The baths are / a real wonder in the middle of this dry plain, where the subterranean water
level is nowadays at 10-12 m. depth. / The /layout and the construction of the heating
installation (hypocaust) links them with the Antique [1st-3rd c.]" (Rashev/Dimitrov 1999,
ch. 2; bold, GH).
- "The thesis about the antique [1st-3rd c. CE; GH] origin of the monumental buildings in
Pliska is not based on the antique materials found there alone. Its most impressive
monuments are ’antique’ in appearance. / It seems more natural to assume that they belong
to an earlier epoch. But the archaeological evidence does not allow this and it is exactly what
makes Pliska a real puzzle" (Rashev/Dimitrov 1999, ch. IV; bold GH).
VIKING AGE BULGARIA V
To "the re-use of such antique building materials must be linked to the antique coins from the II to the VI c. / The thesis about the antique age / on the basis of such mobile materials alone, is undefendable. It can be discussed only if there existed the corresponding cultural layer. / Such a layer is absent in Pliska. Its absence can only mean that no antique town existed there in the first place“ (Rashev/Dimitrov 1999, bold GH).
WHO WOULD BRING CHEAP 3rd C. ROMAN BRONZE COINS INTO 9th/10th C. VIKING AGE ICELAND?
- LOCATION OF ROMAN COINS IN ICELAND, from "Roman Coins in Iceland " (2014-12-16, strangehistory.net) [archive.is/vLRWu]
- COIN OF PROBUS (C) "You can see stones that seem to be laid out in rows, and even floortiles, and the fanner has told me that pieces of charcoal has been found in the area, and between the rows of stones there was a very thin layer of black charcoal residue." from D. B. Heidarsson, "Roman coins in Iceland; Roman remnants or Viking exotica", May 2010, (.pdf) [is.gd/9xwXVR]
IDENTIFIED ROMAN COINS FROM ICELAND
1st/2nd c. ROMAN SQUARE SAIL WAR GALLEY COMPARED TO 8th/9th c. VIKING SQUARE SAIL WAR GALLEY.
- “Mainz I“ Liburnia with square sail dated 3rd./4th c. CE but the type was in service since 1st c. BCE (livius.org) [archive.is/xImCo]
- Reconstruction of the 890 CE Gokstad Viking ship with square sail and clinkered hull (23.33 m x 5.25 m). (de.wikipedia.org) [archive.is/M3yIr]
2nd c. ROMAN SQUARE SAIL TRADING VESSEL COMPARED TO 10th c. VIKING SQUARE SAIL TRADING VESSEL. HOW COULD THEY REACH ENGLAND BUT NOT NEIGHBORING SCANDINAVIA?
- Reconstruction of Roman freight ship from Londinium/England with square sail (2nd c. CE). Image from (rgzm.de) [archive.is/WSIGF]
- Reconstruction of Viking freight ship with square sail (10th c. CE). Image from (hurstwic.org) [archive.is/sSgo8]
SQUARE SAILS ON ROMAN COINS (1st BCE-2nd. C. CE).
HOW COULD ANYBODY IGNORE THEM FOR 700 YEARS?
SMALL CHANGE ROMAN COINS REACH SCANDINAVIA SINCE THE LATÈNE PERIOD .
WHY DOES THE SQUARE SAIL TAKES AT LEAST 700 YEARS LONGER?
(from J. Haywood, The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings, Penguin Books,1995)
Julius CAESAR (100 – 44 BCE) gives a description of ships and sails of the Veneti (with brethren on the Baltic Sea) in the 1st c. BCE that fit Baltic sailing ships of the 8th c. CE ff. (De Bello Gallico, III, 13):
- “The ships were built wholly of oak. […] The benches which were made of planks a foot in breadth, were fastened by iron spikes of the thickness of a man's thumb; […] for sails they used skins and thin dressed leather.”
- STRABO (63 BCE/24 CE) about JUTLAND-CIMBRI: “They sent as a present to Augustus the most sacred kettle in their country, with a plea for his friendship, / and when their petition was granted they set sail for home” (Geography 7: 2,1).
SCANDINAVIANS SAIL IN LATE LA LATÈNE AND, AGAIN, 700 YEARS LATER IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES!
- That, before the 8th c. CE, the sailing ship “was not adopted in Scandinavia is puzzling“ (Jan Bill, “Viking Ships and the Sea“, 2012, p. 172).
In ANTIQUITY (1st-3rd c.) around 150 CE, Runes were generally replaced by the Latin alphabet.
Yet, in the EARLY MIDDLE AGES (9th-10th c.), Runes existed again side by side with Latin.
RUNIC EVOLUTION JUMPS FROM LATE LATÈNE DIRECTLY TO THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES!
1st c. (=SLAVIC VENEDI-PERIOD) Roman millefiori glass in 8th c. (=SLAVIC WEONOD-PERIOD) VIKING SITES
- Roman (1st c. BCE/CE) [www.forumancientcoins.com/Coins2/]
- Find from HAITHABU (8th/9th c.) [Schietzel 2013, 276]
- Roman (1st c. CE) (bonhams.com) [archive.is/fv7lH]
- Find from TRUSO (early 9th c. CE ) [Jagodzinski 2010, 102]
1st-3rd c. Roman artifacts in 8th-10th c. Viking sites.
HOW CAN SITES WITH SOME 300 YEARS OF HISTORY HAVE SOME 1000 YEARS OF CHRONOLOGY?
2nd c. CE Roman coins in 9th c. WOENOD-period. Why use 700 years old coins?
- HAITHABU (9th c. CE) [Schietzel 2013, 550] Roman tegula (83 CE of LEG[io] I M[inervia]). (Titus 79 CE coin not shown.)
- TRUSO (9th c. CE) [Bogucki 2012, 41 f.] Faustina, Anton. Pius (2nd c. CE) coins.
Why are Viking age sites without settlements from ca. 1-700 CE?
- SMALL FINDS ARE SEEN AS HEIRLOOMS BEQUEATHED OVER 30 OR 40 GENERATIONS FROM PARENTS TO CHILDREN. YET, THERE ARE NO BUILDING STRATA FROM 1-700 TO ACCOMMODATE THE FAMILIES.
- WHERE DID THEY LIVE DURING THE 700 YEARS IN WHICH THE ITEMS WERE HANDED DOWN?
- WHY DID BEQUEATHING STOP AFTER THE 10th C. CRISIS?
Even LATIUM, Rome‘s heartland, jumps, afer a devastaing catastrophe, from the 3rd c. directly to the 10th c. with no buildings for the 700 years in between.
- Gaeta‘s post-catastrophic High Medieval city wall (930s CE) built with spoliae dating from before the 3rd c. CE (Foto J. Sidorczak-Heinsohn).
- Remains of Gaeta‘s post-catastrophic palace (930s) of the city‘s first dukes built by and based upon pre-3rd c. spoliae (Foto: J. Sidorczak-Heinsohn).
EVEN THE CATASTROPHIC FALL OF 3rd C. CITIES IS REPEATED, 700 YEARS LATER, BY 10th C. VIKING AGE CITIES
- “Parts (of Londinium) / were already covered by a horizon of dark silts (often described as `dark earth') / Land was converted to arable and pastoral use or abandoned entirely. The dark earth may have started forming in the 3rd century” (Schofield 1999; bold GH). (154 m London basilica [2nd. c,.] discovered by chance in 1881).
- "A dark grey / layer" had strangled Pliska at the beginning of the 10th c. (Henning 2007, 219; bold GH). "A city of the dead had, between the 11th and the 13th c., covered the lion’s share of" Preslav (Kirilov 2006, 143). Images: above, a Pliska basilica / below, a Preslav basilica
- How could Scandinavian and Baltic peoples of Antiquity and Late Antiquity fail to adopt sails,
ports and breakwaters when there were countless experts from Europe who could teach them, and
even low-value Roman coins spread throughout their territories? How could these peoples, after 700
CE, become the world‘s uncontested master seafarers when – after the lethal and irreversible fall of
Roman civilization – there was nobody left to teach them? How could they understand classical
Latin and create items of Antiquity and Late Antiquity – which they imitated perfectly, right down
to the chemical fingerprints of Roman paints and glass pastes – when they did not even have ancient
strata beneath their habitats from which they could dig up and copy the material culture of Rome?
- How could Arabs of Antiquity and Late Antiquity, the Vikings‘ trading partners, fail, for some 700
years, to write texts or issue coins when there were countless experts all over the Mediterranean who could teach them such basics? How, after 700 CE, could the Arabs become uncontested masters of these cultural techniques when Roman civilization had been crushed, and there were no specialists left to teach them these skills?
- How is it possible that sites devastated in the 3rd c. exhibit the same architecture and crafts as early medieval sites devastated in the 10th c. CE? How can one explain that sites dated to Antiquity (1st-3rd c.) are as stratigraphically close to the High Middle Ages (10th/11th c.) as Early Medieval sites if they are not contemporary?
- Böhme, H.W. (2008), "Gallische Höhensiedlungen…", in H. Steuer, V. Bierbrauer (eds.), Höhensiedlungen zwischen Antike und Mittelalter, Berlin & New York: Gruyter, 71-103
- Bogucki, M. (2012), "Antique, medieval and modern coin finds from Janów Pomorski", in Bogucki, M., Jurkiewicz, B., Hg., Janów Pomorski:. Stan. 1: Wyniki ratowniczych badan archeologicznych w
latach 2007-2008 / Archaeological Rescue Excavations in 2007-2008, vol. 1:3, Muzeum Archeologiczno-Historyczne w Elblagu
- Bill, J. (2012), "Viking Ships and the Sea!", in S. Brink (ed.), The Viking World, London: Routledge, 170-180
- Harden, D.B. (1988), Glas der Caesaren, Olivetti
- Henning, J. (2007), "The Metropolis of Pliska or, how large does an early medieval settlement have to be in order to be called a city?", in J. Henning, Hg., Post-Roman Towns, Trade and Settlement in
Europe and Byzantium, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, vol. 2, 209-40 (.pdf) [is.gd/uHPcMW]
- Jagodziński, M.F. (2010), Truso: Miedzy Weonodlandem a Witlandem / Between Weonodland and Witland, Elblag: Muzeum Archeologiczno-Historycne w Elblagu
- Kirilov, T. (2006), Die Stadt des Frühmittelalters in Ost und West: Archäologische Befunde Mitteleuropas im Vergleich zur östlichen Balkanhalbinsel, Bonn: Habelt Verlag.
- Michaud, R. et al. (1996), Design and Colour in Islamic Archictecture: Eight Centuries of the Tile-Maker’s Art, New York & Paris: Vendome
- Petersen, A. (1996), Dictionary of Islamic Architecture, London & New York: Routledge
- Ó Cróinín, D., ed. (2008). A New History of Ireland I: Prehistoric and Early Ireland, Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Rashev, R., Dimitrov, Y. (1999), Pliska - 100 years of archaeological excavations, http://www.kroraina.com/pliska/index.html.
- Schietzel, K. (2013), Spurensuche Haithabu: Dokumentation und Chronik 1963-2013, Neumünster/Hamburg: Wachholtz
- Schofield, J. (1999), “Saxon London in a tale of two cities”, British Archaeology, 1999, No. 44 [May], (archaeologyuk.org) [archive.is/IzP3s].
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Thanks for editorial assistance go to Clark Whelton (New York). Correction proposals also came from Jan Beaufort (Bielefeld), and Ewald Ernst (Horn).
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